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Figure 2.12 | Total anthropogenic direct and indirect GHG emissions for the year 2019 (in GtCO2-eq) by sector and subsector. Direct emissions estimates assign emissions to the sector in which they arise (scope 1 reporting). Indirect emissions – as used here – refer to the reallocation of emissions from electricity and heat to the sector of final use (scope 2 reporting). Note that cement refers to process emissions only, as a lack of data prevents the full reallocation of indirect emissions to this sector. More comprehensive conceptualisations of indirect emissions including all products and services (scope 3 reporting) are discussed in Section 2.3 of this chapter. Emissions are converted into CO2-equivalents based on global warming potentials with a 100-year time horizon (GWP100) from the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report. Percentages may not add up to 100 across categories due to rounding at the second significant digit. Source: based on Lamb et al. (2021b); data: Minx et al. (2021).