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Figure 8.20: Urban growth typologies define the main patterns of urban development. Emerging urban areas are undergoing the buildup of new infrastructure. These are new urban areas that are budding out. Rapidly growing urban areas are undergoing significant changes in either outward and/or upward growth, accompanied by large-scale development of new urban infrastructure. Established urban areas are relatively stable with mature urban form and existing urban infrastructures. Each of these typologies represents different levels of economic development and state of urbanisation. Rapidly growing urban areas that are building up through vertical development are often those with higher levels of economic development. Rapidly growing urban areas that are building outward through horizontal expansion are found at lower levels of economic development and are land intensive. Like with urban form, different areas of a single city can undergo different growth typologies. Therefore a city will be comprised of multiple urban growth typologies. Source: synthesized from Mahtta et al. (2019) and Lall et al. (2021).