Impacts and responses of components of the Earth System.
Summary of typical changes found for warmer periods in the paleorecord, as discussed by Fischer et al. (2018). All statements are relative to pre-industrial conditions. Statements in italics indicate that no conclusions can be drawn for the future. Note that significant spatial variability and uncertainty exists in the assessment of each component, and this figure therefore should not be referred to without reading the publication in detail. HTM: Holocene Thermal Maximum, LIG: Last Interglacial, MPWP: Mid Pliocene Warm Period. (Adapted from Fischer et al., 2018)