The future

is in our


Human activities have caused unprecedented changes in Earth's climate.

Human activities have Earth's climate by more than 1°C since the late 19th century, and the effects on our climate are . We are increasingly feeling the consequences in every inhabited , and the changes we experience become the more the Earth warms. People in all regions will be affected in ways. We're already seeing more severe and frequent . Future emissions will determine global warming. With higher emissions, becomes less efficient in absorbing the carbon we emit. Some changes cannot be avoided, but by limiting warming we can , and even stop, many of them. The is that reducing our emissions quickly can limit global warming.

We can reach a more sustainable world. The choices made now will determine our shared future.

Scientists have known for decades that the Earth is warming. The rise in global temperatures since the late 19th century is unprecedented over thousands of years.
It is unequivocal that humans are causing the warming. Changes in the sun's activity and volcanic eruptions are not the cause of the warming trend.
Caused by
Human activities - burning fossil fuels and changes in land use - release greenhouse gases that trap heat in the atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide is responsible for most of global warming, although methane and other greenhouse gases also warm the climate. Burning fossil fuels also releases aerosols, tiny polluting particles. They have a cooling effect that partly masks the warming.
The consequences of a warming climate are felt across the whole planet. The rising temperatures in the atmosphere, in the ocean and over land cause many changes in Earth's climate. People, nature and cultivated lands are all affected.
We already experience increases in the severity and frequency of weather and climate extremes, like heatwaves, heavy rains, and drought, in many regions of the world.
More warming,
more changes.
With more global warming, many changes become larger. Land and polar regions warm faster than other parts. On land, we will experience more variations, from very wet to very dry events. Some areas will get drier, others will be wetter, and monsoons will intensify.
Our lives will be affected by climate change wherever we live.
It will affect us
in many ways.
The changes will be more pronounced and widespread with further warming. Different places will be affected in multiple ways. People will be affected by different combinations of hazards like dangerous heat levels, cold, frost, rain, flooding, drought, snow, wind, coastal erosion and ocean heat waves.
Knowing what to expect helps us adapt and prepare for a more resilient future.
Less future
less severe
People are already experiencing changes in extremes. Extremely hot days take place more than twice as often as before and are warmer than they used to be.
With every increase in warming, these events are expected to happen even more often and be more severe. Limiting future warming would help avoid this. Every bit of avoided warming matters.
emissions is key.
Carbon dioxide emissions are the main cause of future global warming. Past emissions have brought us to today's climate, but every tonne of carbon dioxide that we emit into the atmosphere from now on will warm the climate further.
Limiting warming depends on how quickly we can stop adding carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
The more is
emitted the less
nature can help.
Nature is a natural carbon sink. During the last decades, around half of our carbon dioxide emissions have been absorbed and stored by plants, soils and the oceans.
The more carbon dioxide we emit, the less efficient nature becomes at removing it from the atmosphere.
Some changes
can be stopped.
Human activities have already damaged our planet, including the frozen regions and the ocean. By cutting our emissions, some changes, like the loss of Arctic sea ice, could be slowed or stopped within a few decades.
Sea level will continue to rise over thousands of years. Limiting warming would slow the pace of sea level rise so we have more time to adapt in low-lying coastal regions.
We can define
our future.
There are different possible futures ahead of us. To limit global warming, we need strong and rapid reductions in carbon dioxide and methane.
This would reduce the consequences of climate change and also reduce pollution and improve air quality and health.
Our planet is warming, and it is warming quickly. We are already seeing the consequences everywhere, and they will worsen the more the planet warms.

The future is in our hands.

It is still possible to limit future warming with strong, rapid and sustained cuts to greenhouse gas emissions. But we need to be decisive.

The choices we make now will determine our future.

Science considers the possible consequences of our decisions on our future climate and the solutions that can help. It also helps us understand the scale of the changes needed to limit global warming and create a more sustainable world.

Science has spoken.

It is time to share this knowledge.

Make the facts matter,

our voices heard,

our choices count.

Whether you are a scientist or a teacher, a policymaker or a student, these videos and powerpoint presentations can help you understand or present the key findings of the IPCC report Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis.

Climate change is unprecedented

Hear from IPCC

Yu Kosaka

Climate change is caused by humans

Hear from IPCC

Piers Forster

Climate change affects everyone, everywhere

Hear from IPCC

Paola Arias

More warming, more changes

Hear from IPCC

Erich Fischer

Climate change will affect us in many ways

Hear from IPCC

Richard Jones

Less future warming, less severe extremes

Hear from IPCC

Xuebin Zhang

Future emissions will determine future warming

Hear from IPCC

Kirsten Zickfeld

The more we emit, the less nature can help

Hear from IPCC

Sönke Zaehle

Some changes in the climate can be slowed and even stopped

Hear from IPCC

Baylor Fox-Kemper

We can define our future

Hear from IPCC

Sophie Szopa

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