Global, local and regional climate changes are the focus of this section. They are examined through changes in climate states (e.g., changes in air temperature and humidity, rainfall, radiation) as well as through changes in atmospheric dynamics (e.g., circulation patterns). Changes in land that influence climate are either climate- or human-driven. Dark-blue arrows and boxes refer to what we consider imposed changes (forcings). Dark-grey arrows and boxes refer to responses of land to forcings (blue boxes and blue-outline box) and feedbacks on those initial forcings. Pale-grey and pale-blue arrows and boxes refer respectively to global and local/regional climate changes and their subsequent changes on land.