Figure 5.16

Intra and inter-linkages for SDG 2 (Zero Hunger) and SDG 13 (Climate Action) at the global level using the official indicators of Sustainable Development Goals that consist of data for 122 indicators for a total of 227 countries between the years 1983 and 2016 (United Nations Statistics Division 2016). Synergies and trade-offs defined as significant positive (ρ > 0.6, red bar) and negative (ρ < –0.6, green bar) Spearman’s correlation between SDG indicators, respectively; ρ between 0.6 and –0.6 is considered as nonclassifieds (yellow bar) (Pradhan et al. 2017). Grey bars show insufficient data for analysis; white box shows number of data pairs used in analysis. The correlation between unique pairs of indicator time-series is carried based on country data. For example, between ‘prevalence of undernourishment’ (an indicator for SDG 2.1) and ‘maternal mortality ratio’ (an indicator for SDG 3.1). The data pairs can belong to the same goal or to two distinct goals. At the global level, intra-linkages of SDGs are quantified by the percentage of synergies, trade-offs, and nonclassifieds of indicator pairs belonging to the same SDG for all the countries. Similarly, SDG interlinkages are estimated by the percentage of synergies, trade-offs, and nonclassifieds between indicator pairs that fall into two distinct goals for all the countries.