Figure 6.2

Global distributions of land-use types and individual land-based challenges.(a) Land-use types (or anthromes, after Ellis and Ramankutty 2008); (b) Climate change adaptation challenge (estimated from the dissimilarity between current and end-of-century climate scenarios, Netzel and Stepinski 2018); (c) Desertification challenge (after Chapter 3, Figure 3.7c); (d) Land degradation challenge (estimated from a soil erosion proxy, one indicator of land degradation; Borrelli et al. 2017); (e) Food security challenge (estimated from chronic undernourishment, a component of food security, FAO 2017a); (f) biodiversity challenge (estimated from threatened biodiversity hotspots, a component of biodiversity, Mittermeier et al. 2011]); (g) Groundwater stress challenge (estimated from water over-abstraction, Gassert et al. 2014); (h) Water quality challenge (estimated from critical nitrogen and phosphorus loads of water systems, Xie and Ringler 2017).