Figure 6.7

Global distributions of: (a) number of overlapping land challenges (desertification, land degradation, climate change adaptation, chronic undernourishment, biodiversity, groundwater stress and water quality (Figure 6.2); (b) number of land management responses providing medium-to-large co-benefits and no adverse side effects (see Figure 6.6) across challenges; (c) Human Development Index (HDI) by country. The HDI (UNDP 2018) is a country-based composite statistical index measuring average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life (estimated from life expectancy at birth), knowledge (estimated from years of schooling), and a decent standard of living (estimated from gross national income per capita).