Risks associated with bioenergy crop deployment as a land-based mitigation strategy under two SSPs (SSP1 and SSP3). The assessement is based on literature investigating the consequences of bioenergy expansion for food security, ecosystem loss and water scarcity. These risk indicators were aggregated as a single risk metric in the figure. In this context, very high risk indicates that important adverse consequences are expected for all these indicators (more than 100 million people at risk of hunger, major ecosystem losses and severe water scarcity issues). The climate scenario considered is a mitigation scenario consistent with limiting global warming at 2°C (RCP2.6), however some studies considering other scenarios (e.g., no climate change) were considered in the expert judgement as well as results from other SSPs (e.g., SSP2). The literature supporting the assessment is provided in Table SM7.3.