Land-based options that help mitigate climate change are various and differ greatly in their potential. The options with moderate-to-large mitigation potential, and no adverse side effects, include options that decrease pressure on land (e.g., by reducing the land needed for food production) and those that help to maintain or increase carbon stores both above ground (e.g., forest measures, agroforestry, fire management) and below ground (e.g., increased soil organic matter or reduced losses, cropland and grazing land management, urban land management, reduced deforestation and forest degradation). These options also have co-benefits for adaptation by improving health, increasing yields, flood attenuation and reducing urban heat island effects. Another group of practices aim at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources, such as livestock management or nitrogen fertilisation management. Land-based options delivering climate change adaptation may be structural (e.g., irrigation and drainage systems, flood and landslide control), technological (e.g., new adapted crop varieties, changing planting zones and dates, using climate forecasts), or socio-economic and institutional (e.g., regulation of land use, associativity between farmers). Some adaptation options (e.g., new planting zones, irrigation) may have adverse side effects for biodiversity and water. Adaptation options may be planned, such as those implemented at regional, national or municipal level (top-down approaches), or autonomous, such as many technological decisions taken by farmers and local inhabitants. In any case, their effectiveness depends greatly on the achievement of resilience against extreme events (e.g., floods, droughts, heat waves, etc.).