Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

The Working Group II contribution to the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report assesses the impacts of climate change, looking at ecosystems, biodiversity, and human communities at global and regional levels. It also reviews vulnerabilities and the capacities and limits of the natural world and human societies to adapt to climate change.

Summary for Policymakers

The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) provides a high-level summary of the key findings of the Working Group II Report and is approved by the IPCC member governments line by line.

Technical Summary

The Technical Summary (TS) provides extended summary of key findings and serves as a link between the comprehensive assessment of the Working Group II Report and the concise SPM.

96 pages, 22 mb

Full Report

The 18 Chapters and 7 Cross-Chapter Papers of the Working Group II Report assess the impacts of climate change on nature and humanity, and their capacities and limits for adaptation.

3675 pages, 294 mb

The Technical Summary (TS), the full Report Chapters and Cross-Chapter Papers, the Annexes and the Supplementary Materials are the Final Draft versions, and remain subject to revisions following the SPM approval, corrigenda, copy-editing, and layout. Although these documents still carry the note from the Final Government Distribution “Do Not Cite, Quote or Distribute” they may be freely published, as the report has now been approved and accepted.

Frequently Asked Questions

Overarching Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) are an outreach material. They are based on the WGII Report and aim to help to interpret its concepts and findings to a broad audience.

Fact Sheets

The regional and crosscutting factsheets give a snapshot of the key findings, distilled from the relevant Chapters and Cross-Chapter Papers, the TS and the Global to Regional Atlas.

Global to Regional Atlas

The Global to Regional Atlas provides visual summaries and case studies on climate change impacts and risks, vulnerabilities and adaptation, building on the report key findings.

Chapters

Chapter 1

Point of departure and key concepts

Chapter 1 introduces the Working Group II contribution to AR6, explains its framing and context, and elaborates on the key concepts used in the report.

Chapter 2

Terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and their services

Chapter 2 provides a global assessment of climate change impacts and risks to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems and their services as well as adaptation options to reduce risks.

Chapter 3

Ocean and coastal ecosystems and their services

Chapter 3 provides a global assessment of climate change impacts and risks to ocean and coastal ecosystems and their services as well as adaptation options to reduce risks.

Chapter 4

Water

Chapter 4 assesses current climate change impacts on the global water cycle, projected water-related risks for human and natural systems, and adaptation options and effectiveness.

Chapter 5

Food, fibre, and other ecosystem products

Chapter 5 provides a global assessment of climate change impacts and risks to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture, as well as adaptation solutions and limits.

Chapter 6

Cities, settlements and key infrastructure

Chapter 6 assesses climate change impacts and risks to cities, human settlements and key infrastructure as well as enabling conditions and options for adaptation.

Chapter 7

Health, wellbeing and the changing structure of communities

Chapter 7 provides a global assessment of current climate change impacts and projected risks to health and wellbeing, as well as adaptations solutions and limits.

Chapter 8

Poverty, livelihoods and sustainable development

Chapter 8 assesses climate change impacts and future risks to the most vulnerable and marginalized people and livelihoods as well as enabling conditions and options for adaptation.

Chapter 9

Africa

Chapter 9 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as enabling conditions, barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in Africa.

Chapter 10

Asia

Chapter 10 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as enabling conditions, barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in Asia.

Chapter 11

Australasia

Chapter 11 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in Australia and New Zealand.

Chapter 12

Central and South America

Chapter 12 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in Central and South America.

Chapter 13

Europe

Chapter 13 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as enabling conditions, barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in Europe.

Chapter 14

North America

Chapter 14 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in North America.

Chapter 15

Small Islands

Chapter 15 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in Small Islands.

Chapter 16

Key risks across sectors and regions

Chapter 16 synthesizes observed climate change impacts, adaptation-related responses, limits to adaptation and the key risks identified across sectors and regions.

Chapter 17

Decision-making options for managing risk

Chapter 17 assesses the options, processes and enabling conditions for climate risk management as well as the governance and applicability of adaptation options in various contexts.

Chapter 18

Climate resilient development pathways

Chapter 18 assesses the ways climate impacts and risks hinder Climate Resilient Development (CRD) in different sectoral and regional contexts as well as the ways of achieving CRD.

Cross-Chapter Papers

Cross-Chapter Paper 1

Biodiversity hotspots (land, coasts and oceans)

CCP1 assesses the impacts and vulnerability to climate change of terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems considered to be biodiversity hotspots.

Cross-Chapter Paper 2

Cities and settlements by the sea

CCP2 assesses climate change impacts and risks to coastal cities and settlements, their vulnerability as well as enabling conditions and options for adaptation.

Cross-Chapter Paper 3

Deserts, semi-arid areas, and desertification

CCP3 assesses climate change impacts and risks to deserts and semi-arid areas, including desertification, as well as options for adaptation and climate resilient development.

Cross-Chapter Paper 4

Mediterranean region

CCP4 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in the Mediterranean region.

Cross-Chapter Paper 5

Mountains

CCP5 assesses climate change impacts and risks, vulnerability as well as barriers and options for adaptation and climate resilient development in mountain regions.

Cross-Chapter Paper 6

Polar regions

CCP6 assesses the climate change impacts and risks to ecosystems and human systems in Polar Regions, as well as options for adaptation and climate resilient development.

Cross-Chapter Paper 7

Tropical forests

CCP7 assesses climate change impacts and risks, as well as barriers and options for adaptation and increasing climate resilience in tropical forests.

Annexes

ANNEX I

Global to Regional Atlas

ANNEX II

Glossary