Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will reduce the occurrence of extreme events and the likelihood of abrupt changes. Abrupt changes can be irreversible on human time scales and, as tipping points, bring natural systems to novel conditions. To reduce risks that emerge from these impacts of climate change, communities can protect themselves or accommodate to the new environment. In the last resort, they may retreat from exposed areas. Governance that builds on diverse expertise and considers a variety of actions is best equipped to manage remaining risks.
Climate change is projected to influence extreme events and to potentially cause abrupt changes in the ocean and the cryosphere. Both these phenomena can add to the other, slow-onset impacts of climate change, such as a global warming or sea level rise (SLR). In addition, abrupt changes can be tipping points, bringing the ocean, cryosphere, as well as their ecosystems, or the whole climate system, to new conditions instead or going back to the ones prevailing before the abrupt change.
In the ocean, a possible abrupt change is associated with an interruption of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), an important component of global ocean circulation. A slowdown of the AMOC could have consequences around the world: rainfall in the Sahel region could reduce, hampering crop production; the summer monsoon in Asia could weaken; regional SLR could increase around the Atlantic, and there might be more winter storms in Europe. The collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is considered to be one of the tipping points for the global climate. Such an event can be triggered when ice shelves break and ice flows towards the ocean. While, in general, it is difficult to assess the probability of occurrence of abrupt climate events they are physically plausible events that could cause large impacts on ecosystems and societies and may be irreversible.
Reducing GHG emissions is the main action to limit global warming to acceptable levels and reduce the occurrence of extreme events and abrupt changes. However, in addition to mitigation, a variety of measures and risk management strategies supports adaptation to future risks. Future risks linked to abrupt changes are strongly influenced by local conditions and different characteristics of the events themselves and evolve differently depending on the circumstances. One major factor for adaptation is whether the extreme events will simply amplify the known impacts or whether they will cause completely new conditions, which may be related to a tipping point. Another essential factor is whether an extreme event or abrupt change will happen in isolation or in conjunction with other events, in a chain of cascading impacts or as part of a compound risk where several events happen at the same time so that impacts can multiply each other. Also, impacts are heavily aggravated by increasing exposure and changes in vulnerability, for example reducing the availability of food, water and energy supply, and not just the occurrence of extremes themselves.
Successful management of extreme events and abrupt changes in the ocean and cryosphere involves all available resources and governance approaches, including among others land-use and spatial planning, indigenous knowledge and local knowledge. The management of the risks to ecosystems include their preservation, the sustainable use of resources and the recognition of the value of ecosystem services. There are three general approaches that, alone or in combination, can enable communities to adapt to these events: retreat from the area, accommodation to new conditions and protection. All have advantages and limitations and their success will depend on the specific circumstances and the community’s level of adaptability. But only transformative governance that integrates a variety of strategies and benefits from institutional change helps to address larger risks posed by compound events. Integrating risk-reduction approaches into institutional practices and inclusive decision making that builds on the respective competences of different government agencies and other stakeholders can support management of these extremes. A change of lifestyles and livelihoods might further support the adaptation to new conditions.