Box 1.1, Figure 1

Box 1.1, Figure 1 | Climate change-related effects in the ocean include sea level rise, increasing ocean heat n
content and marine heat waves, ocean deoxygenation, and ocean acidification (Section 1.4.1). Changes in the cryosphere include the decline of Arctic sea ice extent, Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss, glacier mass loss, permafrost thaw and decreasing snow cover extent (Section 1.4.2). For illustration purposes, a few examples of where humans directly interact with ocean and cryosphere are shown.