Figure 2.5

Figure 2.5 | Mean annual ground temperature from boreholes in debris and bedrock in the European Alps, Scandinavia and High Mountain Asia. Temperatures differ between locations and warming trends can be interspersed by short periods of cooling. One location shows degrading of permafrost. Overall, the number of observed boreholes is small and most records are short. The depth of measurements is approximately 10 m, and years without sufficient data are omitted (Noetzli et al., 2018).