Figure 3.12

Changes in public infrastructure damage costs in cumulative USD by 2100 in Alaska under different emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)). The inset showing airports, railroads, and pipelines has a different in scale than roads, buildings, and the total. Bars over open circles represent climate-related costs of impact with no engineering adaptation measures, whereas bars over check-marked circles represent the costs following savings from engineering adaptation (figure modified from Melvin et al., 2017).