The Arctic (top) and Antarctic (bottom) polar regions. Various place names referred to in the text are marked. Dashed lines denote approximate boundaries for the polar regions; as their spatial footprint varies in relation to particular cryosphere and ocean elements or scientific disciplines, this chapter adopts a purposefully flexible approach to their delineation. The southern polar region encompasses the flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) at least as far north as the Subantarctic Front and fully encompasses the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources Statistical Areas (CCAMLR, 2017c), the Antarctic continent and Antarctic and subantarctic islands, whilst the marine Arctic includes the areas of the Arctic Large Marine Ecosystems (PAME, 2013). The terrestrial Arctic comprises the areas of the northern continuous and discontinuous permafrost zone, the Arctic biome inclusive of glacial ice, and the parts of the boreal biome that are characterised by cryosphere elements, such as permafrost and persistent winter season snow cover.