Figure 5.12 | A schematic diagram to illustrate how net primary production (NPP) is a combination of microbial growth and biomass. In this context, growth is controlled by three limiting factors (nutrients, light and temperature), while biomass is affected by grazing. The grey lines in the plots represent results from different Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models as reported by Laufkötter et al. (2015). Poorly understood feedbacks from upper trophic levels on autotroph biomass and nutrients are represented by dashed arrows.