Figure TS.2

Figure TS.2 | Schematic illustration of key components and changes of the ocean and cryosphere, and their linkages in the Earth system through the global exchange of heat, water, and carbon (Section 1.2). Climate change-related effects (increase/decrease indicated by arrows in pictograms) in the ocean include sea level rise, increasing ocean heat content and marine heat waves, increasing ocean oxygen loss and ocean acidification (Section 1.4.1). Changes in the cryosphere include the decline of Arctic sea ice extent, Antarctic and Greenland ice sheet mass loss, glacier mass loss, permafrost thaw, and decreasing snow cover extent (Section 1.4.2). For illustration purposes, a few examples of where humans directly interact with ocean and cryosphere are shown (for more details see Box 1.1).