In a report addressing the effects of aviation on the global atmosphere, the
link between emissions and the technological status of aircraft now and in the
future is clearly a central issue. The subject is complex. Our approach here,
therefore, has been to identify a number of key questions, the answers to which
provide an assessment of technical issues, problems, and the prospects of solving
The questions and their corresponding answers are as follows:
- Question-What are the principal technological factors that determine the
nature and scale of emissions from aircraft at altitude?
Answer-The overriding technological consideration in the design of aircraft
today is safety. Given that prerequisite, aircraft are designed to provide
an efficient and environmentally acceptable system of transport from ground
level to the demanding conditions associated with high-speed flight at high
altitudes. To achieve high efficiency, fuel consumption must be minimized
by reducing the weight and drag of the aircraft. This requirement also ensures
that there is a constant drive toward the highest levels of energy conversion
efficiency from the engine. Together, these factors ensure that carbon dioxide
CO2) and water outputs are minimized.
The most fuel-efficient engines for today's aircraft are high bypass, high
pressure ratio gas turbine engines. No known alternatives are in sight. These
engines have high combustion pressures and temperatures; although these features
are consistent with fuel efficiency, they increase NOx formation rates-especially
at high power take-off and at altitude cruise conditions.
Current low-sulfur fuels minimize SOxO emissions. Small amounts of fuel-bound
sulfur (400-600 ppm) and associated organic acids provide important lubricity
properties for critical fuel system components. Processing to remove all traces
of sulfur would remove important organic acids, so sulfur-free fuels are unlikely
to be adopted in the short term. Sulfur removal would also result in a small
net rise in CO2.
At present there is only limited knowledge about the formation and behavior
of minor, trace species and aerosols found in the exhaust plumes of engines.
Even less is known about how they are influenced by engine features and characteristics.
. Question-What progress has been made to date in reducing emissions, and
how may new advances in aircraft and engine technology help reduce them further
in the future?
Answer-In the past 40 years, aircraft fuel efficiency has improved by 70%
through improvements in airframe design, engine technology, and rising load
factors. More than half of this improvement has come from advances in engine
technology. These trends are expected to continue, with airframe improvements
expected to play a larger role through improvements in aerodynamic efficiency,
new materials, and advances in control and handling systems. New, larger aircraft
with, for example, a blended-wing body or double-deck cabin offer prospects
of further benefits by relaxing some of the design constraints attached to
today's large conventional aircraft. Because of the very long total lifetimes
of today's aircraft (up to 50 years), however, replacement rates are low,
and the fuel efficiency of the whole fleet will improve slowly. Rising market
demand will ensure that this trend is maintained, however.
The intrinsic link between lower CO and rising levels of NOx is being successfully
countered with relatively simple strategies in state-of-the-art combustors.
These combustors have achieved 20-40% reductions in NOx. Consolidation of
these improvements to broaden their applicability to newer, even more fuel-efficient
engines demands further improvements in combustor technology. Major research
programs are underway to do so.
Although the use of hydrogen as a fuel offers a way to eliminate CO2 and
further reduce NOx from aircraft, widespread use of hydrogen fuel presents
major design problems for aircraft and would entail global changes in supply,
ground handling, and storage. Hydrogen would also substantially increase water
vapor emissions from aircraft. Thus, kerosene-type fuels are considered to
be the only viable option for aircraft within the next 50 years (to 2050).
- Question-What data exist about actual emissions from aircraft? What is
being done and what needs to be done to improve our understanding of and our
ability to predict the scale and nature of these emissions?
Answer-The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engine emissions
databank is a substantial and growing source of reliable information that
is now being used to develop aircraft emissions inventories and to analyze
specific emissions. The databank-which includes information on smoke, hydrocarbons
(HC), carbon moNOxide (CO), and NOx emitted during a defined landing and
take-off cycle-is collated with prescribed correction procedures to guarantee
consistency and comparability. There is no comparable source of data relating
to sulfur compounds (SOxO) and minor trace species or aerosols from engines.
Such data are emerging from individual research programs, but much more
must be done to increase the breadth and depth of knowledge about the formation,
nature, and scale of these potentially important aircraft emissions.
Important progress has been made in the measurement and observation of
the transient behavior of minor and trace species in engines. Again, further
work is needed before conclusions can be drawn that might offer clues concerning
their control and reduction in future engines.
- Question-How are emissions from aircraft currently regulated, and how do
these regulations influence emissions at altitude?
Answer-Present aircraft emissions regulations apply only to the landing
and take-off cycle up to an altitude of 900 m. However, these regulations
exert a controlling influence on emissions from aircraft at cruise altitudes
because design changes to achieve lower NOx at take-off are equally beneficial
at medium-power cruise conditions. Methods have been developed to use the
ICAO databank to predict aircraft emissions at altitude cruise conditions.
These predictions are accurate to within 5-10% for a modern, high bypass
- Question-What performance might we expect from new aircraft entering the
fleets in 2015 and 2050 (the dates of the scenarios discussed in Chapter
Answer-The emerging effects of research and technology programs on airframes
and engines will influence future fleets of subsonic aircraft. A group of
aerospace industry experts has developed some technology projections relating
to fuel efficiency and NOx emissions of aircraft by the years 2015 and 2050.
According to these scenarios, average fuel efficiency of new production
aircraft in the scheduled commercial fleet may improve by 20% between 1997
and 2015. The corresponding scenarios for improvement between 1997 and 2050
involved two different technology scenarios to take account of tradeoffs
between fuel efficiency and low NOx in aircraft designs. In the first case,
with fuel efficiency taking priority, a 40-50% improvement in the fuel efficiency
of new production aircraft was projected. In the second case, where NOx
reductions took priority, a 30-40% improvement in fuel efficiency was envisaged.
New commercial supersonic transport aircraft, operating at speeds of Mach
2 to 2.4, have been proposed for introduction into service, though not before
2015. It now seems unlikely that any commercial supersonic transports will
exceed flight speeds of Mach 2.5 within the next 50 years as a result of
engineering problems, materials limits, fuel efficiency, and other economic
considerations. Supersonic aircraft are intrinsically less fuel efficient
than subsonic aircraft. They consume about twice as much fuel, on a passenger-kilometer
basis, as subsonic aircraft of the same size and range. To minimize stratospheric
ozone depletion, the major design criteria for supersonic aircraft focus
on flight altitude and low NOx output. Water vapor emissions may become
more important than NOx emissions. If so, control of H2O emissions will
depend solely on the achievement of greater fuel efficiency. Sulfur aerosols
originating in the fuel are an emerging concern in the altitude bands used
by supersonic aircraft. As in the subsonic aircraft case, more data are
needed to determine their true impact.
- Question-What are the likely effects of small aircraft and military aircraft
on the environment?
Answer-Small aircraft, including commuter aircraft and general aviation,
pose little environmental threat because they consume a very small fraction
of the total of aviation fuel. Similarly, military aircraft, which consume
less than 20% of the total aviation fuel supply today and, as civil aviation
grows, perhaps less than 5% in the next 50 years, are seen as having potentially
small environmental impacts.