Emissions Scenarios

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AFEAS (Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study), 1998: Production, Sales and Atmospheric Release of Fluorocarbons Through 1997. AFEAS, Washington, DC.

Akimoto, H., and H. Narita, 1994: Distribution of SO2 ,NOX , and CO2 emissions from fuel combustion and industrial activities in Asia with 1ºx1º resolution. Atmospheric Environment, 28(2), 213-225.

Alcamo, J., A. Bouwman, J. Edmonds, A. Grübler, T. Morita, and A. Sugandhy, 1995: An evaluation of the IPCC IS92 emission scenarios. In Climate Change 1994, Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and An Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios, J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, Hoesung Lee, B.A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris and K. Maskell (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 233- 304.

Alcamo, J., J. Onigkeit, and F. Kaspar, 1997: The Pollutant Burden Approach for Computing Global and Regional Emissions of Sulfur Dioxide. Center for Environmental Systems Research, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany.

Amann, M., I. Bertok, J. Cofala, F. Gyarfas, C. Heyes, Z. Klimont, M. Makowski, W. Schoepp, and S. Shibayev, 1996: Cost-Effective Control of Acidification and Ground-Level Ozone.Second interim report to the European Commission (DGXI), International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.

Ashford, P., 1999: Consideration for the responsible use of HFCs in Foams. Joint IPCC/TEAP Expert Meeting on Options for the Limitation of Emissions of HFCs and PCFs, Petten, the Netherlands.

Baumann H., N. Ulrich, G. Haupt, G. Zimmermann, R. Pruschek, and G. Oeljeklaus, 1998: Development of a Cost Effective IGCC 98 Power Plant. Power Gen Europe '98, Milan, June 9-11.

Benkovitz, C.M., M.T. Scholtz, J. Pacyna, L. Tarrason, J. Dignon, E.C. Voldner, P.A. Spiro, J.A. Logan, and T.E. Graedel, 1996: Global gridded inventories of anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101(D22), 29,239-29,253.

Dadi, Z., L. Xueyi, and X. Huaqing, 1998: Estimation of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions in China in 1990 and 1995. Energy Research Institute, Beijing, China.

Davidson, EA., and W. Kingerlee, 1997: A global inventory of nitric oxide emissions from soils. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 48(1/2), 37-50.

Delmas, R, D. Serca, and C. Jambert, 1997: Global inventory of NOx sources. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 48(1/2), 51-60.

De Vries, B., J. Bollen, L. Bouwman, M. den Elzen, M. Janssen, and E. Kreileman 2000: Greenhouse gas emissions in an equity-, environment- and service-oriented world: An IMAGE-based scenario for the next century. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Dignon, J., and S. Hameed, 1989: Global emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides from 1860 to 1989. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 39(2), 180-186.

ECE (UN Economic Commission for Europe), 1997: Anthropogenic Emissions of Sulfur 1980 to 2010 in the ECE Region. EB.AIR/GE.1/1997/3 and Addendum 1, ECE, Geneva.

EU (European Commission), 1997: Estimated European Union (EU) fluorocarbon emissions now and in the future & EU reduction potential of fluorocarbon emissions. Draft, January 28, 1997, EC, Brussels.

Fenhann, J., 2000: Industrial non-energy, non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Foell W., M. Amann, G. Carmichael, M. Chadwick, J.-P. Hettelingh, L. Hordijk, and Z. Dianwu, 1995: Rains Asia: An assessment model for air pollution in Asia. Report on the World Bank sponsored project "Acid Rain and Emission Reductions in Asia," World Bank, Washington, DC.

Grübler, A., 1998: A review of global and regional sulfur emission scenarios. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 3(2-4), 383-418.

Harnisch, J., R. Borchers, P. Fabian, and M. Maiss, 1999: CF4 and the age of mesopheric polar vortex air. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(3), 295-298.

Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, Hoesung Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell (eds.), 1995: Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emissions Scenarios. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.), 1996: Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change, Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 1997: Revised Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Organisation for Economic Cooperation (OECD), and the International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris.

Jiang, K., T. Masui, T. Morita, and Y. Matsuoka, 2000: Long-term GHG emission scenarios of Asia-Pacific and the world. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Kato, N., 1996: Analysis of the structure of energy consumption and dynamics of emission of atmospheric species related to global environmental change (SOx , NOx ,CO2 ) in Asia. Atmospheric Environment 30(5), 757-785.

Kram, T., K. Riahi, R.A. Roehrl, S. van Rooijen, T. Morita, and B. de Vries, 2000: Global and regional greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Kroeze, C., and Reijnders, L., 1992: Halocarbons and global warming III. The Science of Total Environment, 112, 291-314.

Kroeze, C., 1995: Fluorocarbons and SF6 , Global Emission Inventory and Options for Control. RIVM report 773001007, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Maiss, M., L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, P.J. Fraser, R.L. Langenfelds, N.B.A Trivett, and I. Levin, 1996: Sulfur hexafluoride - a powerful new atmospheric tracer. Atmospheric Environment, 30, 1621-1629.

McCulloch, A., P.M. Midgley, and D.A. Fisher, 1994: Distribution of emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 11, 12, 113, 114 and 115 among reporting and non-reporting countries in 1986. Atmospheric Environment, 28(16), 2567- 2582.

McCulloch, A., and P.M. Midgley, 1998: Estimated historic emissions of fluorocarbons from the European Union. Atmospheric Environment, 32(9), 1571-1580.

Midgley, P.M., and A. McCulloch, 1999: Properties and applications of industrial halocarbons. In Reactive Halogen Compounds in the Atmosphere, 4, Part E. P. Fabian, and O.N. Singh (eds.), The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg.

Mori, S., 2000: The development of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios using an extension of the MARIA model for the assessment of resource and energy technologies. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Mosier, A., C. Kroeze, C. Nevison, O. Oenema, S. Seitzinger, and O. van Cleemput, 1998: Closing the global N2O budget: nitrous oxide emissions through the agricultural nitrogen cycle: OECD/IPCC/IEA phase II development of IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventory methodology. Nutrient Cycling in Agrosystems, 52, 225-248.

Olivier, J.G.J., A.F. Bouwman, C.W.M. van der Maas, J.J.M. Berdowski, C. Veldt, J.P.J. Bloos, A.J.H. Visschedijk, P.Y.J. Zandveld, and J.L. Haverlag, 1996: Description of EDGAR Version 2.0: A set of global emission inventories of GHGs and ozone-depleting substances for all anthropogenic and most natural sources on a per country basis and on 1ox1o grid. Report 771060002, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Oram, D.E., W.T. Sturges, S.A. Penkett, A. McCulloch, and P.J. Fraser, 1998: Growth of fluoroform (CHF 3 , HFC-23) in the background atmosphere. Geophysical Research Letters, 25(1), 35-38.

Pepper, W.J., J. Leggett, R. Swart, J. Wasson, J. Edmonds, and I. Mintzer, 1992: Emissions Scenarios for the IPCC. An update: Assumptions, methodology, and results. Support document for Chapter A3. In Climate Change 1992. Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment. J.T. Houghton, B.A. Callandar, and S.K. Varney (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Preisegger, E., 1999: Automotive Air Conditioning Impact of Refrigerant on Global Warming. Joint IPCC/TEAP Expert Meeting on Options for the Limitation of Emissions of HFCs and PFCs, Petten, the Netherlands.

Riahi, K., and R.A. Roehrl, 2000: Greenhouse gas emissions in a dynamics-as-usual scenario of economic and energy development. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Roehrl, R.A., and K. Riahi, 2000: Technology dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions mitigation - a cost assessment. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Sankovski, A., W. Barbour, and W. Pepper, 2000: Quantification of the IS99 emission scenario storylines using the atmospheric stabilization framework (ASF). Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 63(2-3). (In press).

Science & Policy Services Inc., 1997: Sales of sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 ) by end-use applications; Annual sales for 1961 through 1996; Sales projections for 1997 through 2000, Washington, DC.

Sinton, J.E., (ed.), 1996: China Energy Databook. LBL-32822 Rev.4 UC-900, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA.

Smith, S.J., H. Pitcher, and T.M.L. Wigley, 2000: Global and regional anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. (In press).

Spiro, P.A., D.J. Jacob, and J.A. Logan, 1992: Global inventory of sulfur emissions with 1ºx1º resolution. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 6023- 6036.

US Geological Survey, 1998: Mineral Commodities Information (

Victor, D.G., and G.J. MacDonald, 1998: A Model for Estimating Future Emissions of Sulfur Hexafluoride and Perfluorocarbons. IR-98-053, International Institute for Applied Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, July 1998, pp. 33.

Watson, R., M.C. Zinyowera, and R. Moss (eds.), 1996a: Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 861 pp.

Watson, R., M.C. Zinyowera, and R. Moss (eds.), 1996b: Technologies, Policies and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change. IPCC Technical Paper I, IPCC Working Group II, 85pp.

WMO (World Meteorological Organisation), 1997: Global acid deposition assessment. In WMO Global Atmospheric Watch, No. 16. D.M. Whelpdate, and M.S. Kaiser (eds.), WMO, Geneva.

WMO/UNEP (World Meteorological Organisation and United Nations Environment Programme), 1998: Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998. WMO Global Ozone Research & Monitoring Project, December 1998, WMO, Geneva.

WMO/UNEP, 1999: Conference Report. Joint IPCC/TEAP Expert Meeting on Options for the Limitation of Emissions of HFCs and PFCs, Petten, the Netherlands, 26-28 May 1999.

World Bureau of Metal Statistics, 1997: World Metal Statistics Yearbook. Hertfordshire, UK.

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