Figure TS.7

Radiative forcing (RF) of climate change during the Industrial Era shown by emitted components from 1750 to 2011. The horizontal bars indicate the overall uncer- tainty, while the vertical bars are for the individual components (vertical bar lengths proportional to the relative uncertainty, with a total length equal to the bar width for a ±50% uncertainty). Best estimates for the totals and individual components (from left to right) of the response are given in the right column. Values are RF except for the effective radiative forcing (ERF) due to aerosol–cloud interactions (ERFaci) and rapid adjustment associated with the RF due to aerosol-radiation interaction (RFari Rapid Adjust.). Note that the total RF due to aerosol-radiation interaction (–0.35 Wm–2) is slightly different from the sum of the RF of the individual components (–0.33 Wm–2). The total RF due to aerosol-radiation interaction is the basis for Figure SPM.5. Secondary organic aerosol has not been included since the formation depends on a variety of factors not currently sufficiently quantified. The ERF of contrails includes contrail induced cirrus. Combining ERFaci –0.45 [–1.2 to 0.0] Wm–2 and rapid adjustment of ari –0.1 [–0.3 to +0.1] Wm–2 results in an integrated component of adjustment due to aerosols of –0.55 [–1.33 to –0.06] Wm–2. CFCs = chlorofluorocarbons, HCFCs = hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HFCs = hydrofluorocarbons, PFCs = perfluorocarbons, NMVOC = Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds, BC = black carbon. Further detail regarding the related Figure SPM.5 is given in the TS Supplementary Material. {Figure 8.17}

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