Figure TS.18

(Top) Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring (March to April average) relative snow-covered area (RSCA) in CMIP5, obtained by dividing the simulated 5-year box smoothed spring snow-covered area (SCA) by the simulated average spring SCA of 1986–2005 reference period. (Bottom) NH diagnosed near-surface permafrost area in CMIP5, using 20-year average monthly surface air temperatures and snow depths. Lines indicate the multi model average, shading indicates the inter-model spread (one standard deviation). {Figures 12.32, 12.33}

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