See assigned amounts.
See assigned amount unit.
Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ)
The pilot phase for joint implementation, as defined in Article
4.2(a) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,
that allows for project activity among developed countries (and their companies)
and between developed and developing countries (and their companies). AIJ is
intended to allow Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change to gain experience in jointly implemented project activities. There
is no crediting for AIJ activity during the pilot phase. A decision remains
to be taken on the future of AIJ projects and how they may relate to the Kyoto
Mechanisms. As a simple form of tradable permits, AIJ and other market-based
schemes represent important potential mechanisms for stimulating additional
resource flows for the global environmental good. See also Clean Development
Mechanism, and emissions trading.
Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment. Adaptation
to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems
in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates
harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be
distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public
adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation.
Reduction in emissions by sources or enhancement
of removals by sinks that is additional to any that would occur in the absence
of a Joint Implementation or a Clean Development Mechanism
project activity as defined in the Kyoto Protocol Articles on
Joint Implementation and the Clean Development Mechanism.
This definition may be further broadened to include financial, investment, and
technology additionality. Under financial additionality,
the project activity funding shall be additional to existing Global Environmental
Facility, other financial commitments of Parties included in Annex I, Official
Development Assistance, and other systems of co-operation. Under investment
additionality, the value of the Emissions Reduction
Unit /Certified Emission Reduction Unit shall significantly improve
the financial and/or commercial viability of the project activity. Under
technology additionality, the technology used for the project activity shall
be the best available for the circumstances of the host Party.
The costs of activities of the project or sectoral activity directly related
and limited to its short-term implementation. They include the costs of planning,
training, administration, monitoring, etc.
Planting of new forests on lands that historically have not contained forests2.
See also Deforestation and Deforestation.
See Activities Implemented Jointly.
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
The group was formed during the Second World Climate Conference in 1990 and
comprises small island and low-lying coastal developing countries that are particularly
vulnerable to the adverse consequences of climate change, such
as sea level rise, coral bleaching, and the increased frequency and intensity
of tropical storms. With more than 35 states from the Atlantic, Caribbean, Indian
Ocean, Mediterranean, and Pacific, AOSIS share common objectives on environmental
and sustainable development matters in the UNFCCC (United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) process.
Alternative development paths
Refer to a variety of possible scenarios for societal values and consumption
and production patterns in all countries, including but not limited to a continuation
of todays trends. In this Report, these paths do not include additional
climate initiatives which means that no scenarios are included that explicitly
assume implementation of the UNFCCC or the emission targets of
the Kyoto Protocol, but do include assumptions about other policies
that influence greenhouse gas emissions indirectly.
Energy derived from non-fossil fuel sources.
The ancillary, or side effects, of policies aimed exclusively at climate
change mitigation. Such policies have an impact not only on greenhouse
gas emissions, but also on resource use efficiency, like reduction in
emissions of local and regional air pollutants associated with fossil fuel use,
and on issues such as transportation, agriculture, land-use practices,
employment, and fuel security. Sometimes these benefits are referred to as ancillary
impacts to reflect that in some cases the benefits may be negative. From
the perspective of policies directed at abating local air pollution, greenhouse
gas mitigation may also be considered an ancillary benefit, but these
relationships are not considered in this assessment. See also co-benefits.
Emissions of greenhouse gases, greenhouse gas
precursors, and aerosols associated with human activities. These include burning
of fossil fuels for energy, deforestation and land-use
changes that result in net increase in emissions.
Annex I countries/Parties
Group of countries included in Annex I (as amended in 1998) to the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, including all the developed
countries in the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, and
Economies in transition. By default, the other countries are
referred to as Non-Annex I countries. Under Articles 4.2 (a) and
4.2 (b) of the Convention, Annex I countries commit themselves specifically
to the aim of returning individually or jointly to their 1990 levels of
greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. See also Annex II,
Annex B, and Non-Annex B countries.
Annex II countries
Group of countries included in Annex II to the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change, including all developed countries in the
Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development. Under Article 4.2 (g)
of the Convention, these countries are expected to provide financial resources
to assist developing countries to comply with their obligations, such as preparing
national reports. Annex II countries are also expected to promote the transfer
of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries. See also
Annex I, Annex B, Non-Annex I, and Non-Annex B countries/Parties.
Annex B countries/Parties
Group of countries included in Annex B in the Kyoto Protocol that
have agreed to a target for their greenhouse gas emissions, including
all the Annex I countries (as amended in 1998) but Turkey and
Belarus. See also Annex II, Non-Annex I, and Non-Annex B countries/Parties.
See Alliance of Small Island States.
Assigned amounts (AAs)
Under the Kyoto Protocol, the total amount of greenhouse
gas emissions that each Annex B country has agreed that
its emissions will not exceed in the first commitment period (2008 to 2012)
is the assigned amount. This is calculated by multiplying the countrys
total greenhouse gas emissions in 1990 by five (for the 5-year commitment
period) and then by the percentage it agreed to as listed in Annex B of the
Kyoto Protocol (e.g., 92% for the European Union; 93% for the USA).
Assigned amount unit (AAU)
Equal to 1 tonne (metric ton) of CO2-equivalent emissions
calculated using the Global Warming Potential.
Total cost divided by the number of units of the item for which
the cost is being assessed. With greenhouse gases, for example,
it would be the total cost of a programme divided by the physical quantity of
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