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Radiative forcing is the change in the net vertical irradiance (expressed in
Watts per square meter: Wm-2) at the tropopause due to an internal
change or a change in the external forcing of the climate system, such as, for
example, a change in the concentration of carbon dioxide or the
output of the Sun. Usually radiative forcing is computed after allowing for
stratospheric temperatures to readjust to radiative equilibrium, but with all
tropospheric properties held fixed at their unperturbed values. Radiative forcing
is called instantaneous if no change in stratospheric temperature is
Occurs because, for example, an improvement in motor efficiency lowers the cost
per kilometre driven; it has the perverse effect of encouraging more trips.
Planting of forests on lands that have previously contained forests but that
have been converted to some other use5.
See also afforestation and deforestation.
Rules or codes enacted by governments that mandate product specifications or
process performance characteristics. See also standards.
Energy sources that are, within a short timeframe relative to the earths
natural cycles, sustainable, and include non-carbon technologies such as solar
energy, hydropower, and wind, as well as carbon neutral technologies such as
Research, development, and demonstration
Scientific and/or technical research and development of new production processes
or products, coupled with analysis and measures that provide information to
potential users regarding the application of the new product or process; demonstration
tests, and feasibility of applying these products processes via pilot plants
and other pre-commercial applications.
Refer to those occurrences that are identified and measured as economically
and technically recoverable with current technologies and prices. See also resources.
A component of the climate system, other than the atmosphere, which has the
capacity to store, accumulate or release a substance of concern, e.g. carbon,
a greenhouse gas or a precursor. Oceans, soils, and forests
are examples of reservoirs of carbon. Pool is an equivalent term (note
that the definition of pool often includes the atmosphere). The absolute
quantity of substance of concern, held within a reservoir at a specified time,
is called the stock.
Resources are those occurrences with less certain geological and/or economic
characteristics, but which are considered potentially recoverable with foreseeable
technological and economic developments.
Resource base includes both reserves and resources.
See interaction effect.
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