Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

Other reports in this collection


Adkinson, M.D., R.M. Peterman, M.F. Lapointe, D.M. Gillis, and J. Korman, 1996: Alternative models of climatic effects on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia. Fisheries Oceanography, 5, 137-152.
Aksornkoae, S., 1993: Ecology and Management of Mangroves. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Bangkok, Thailand, 176 pp.
Alam, M., 1996: Subsidence of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta of Bangladesh and associated drainage, sedimentation and salinity problems. In: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence: Causes, Consequences and Strategies [Milliman, J.D. and B.U. Haq (eds.)]. J. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 169-192.
Alheit, J. and E. Hagen, 1997: Long-term climate forcing of European herring and sardine populations. Fisheries Oceanography, 6, 130-139.
Alleng, G.P., 1998: Historical development of the Port Royal mangrove wetland, Jamaica. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 951-959.
Alexander, A.M., J.A. Last, M. Margolis, and R.C. d'Arge, 1998: A method for valuing global ecosystem services. Ecological Economics, 27, 161-170.
Ali, A., 1999: Climate change impacts and adaptation assessment in Bangladesh. In: National Assessment Results of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses [Mimura N. (ed.)]. Climate Research (Special Issue), 6, 109-116.
Anderson, D.M., A.D. Cembella, and G.M. Hallegraeff (eds.), 1998: Physiological ecology of harmful algal blooms. In: Proceedings of NATO Advanced Study Institute, Bermuda, 1996. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 662 pp.
Antonius, A., 1995: Pathologic syndromes on reef corals: a review. In: Coral Reefs in the Past, the Present and the Future [Geister, J. and B. Lathuillere (eds.)]. Publications du Service géologique de Luxembourg, 29, 161-169.
Are, F.E., 1998: The contribution of shore thermoabrasion to the Laptev Sea sediment balance. In: Permafrost: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, Yellowknife, NWT, June 23-27, 1998 [Lewkowicz, A.G. and M. Allard (eds.)]. Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, pp. 25-30.
Aronson, R.B, W.F. Precht, I.G. Macintyre, and T. Murdoch, 2000: Coral bleach-out in Belize. Nature, 405, 36.
Arrigo, K.R., D.H. Robinson, R.B. Dunbar, G.R. Di Tullo, M. van Woert, and M.P. Lizotte, 1999: Phytoplankton community structure and the drawdown of nutrients and CO2 in the Southern Ocean. Science, 283, 365-367.
ASM, 1998: Microbial Pollutants in Our Nation's Water: Environmental and Public Health Issues. American Society for Microbiology, Office of Public Affairs, Washington, DC, USA, 16 pp.
Baldina, E.A., J. de Leeuw, A.K. Gorbunov, I.A. Labutina, A.F. Zhivogliad, and J.F. Kooistra, 1999: Vegetation change in the Astrkhanskiy Biosphere Reserve (Lower Volta Delta, Russia) in relation to Caspian Sea. Environmental Conservation, 26, 169-178.
Beamish, R.J., C. Mahnken, and C.M. Neville, 1997: Hatchery and wild production of Pacific salmon in relation to large-scale, natural shifts in the productivity of the marine environment. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Journal of Marine Science, 54, 1200-1215.
Beamish, R.J., D.J. Noakes, G.A. McFarlane, L. Klyashtorin, V.V. Ivanov, and V. Kurashov, 1999: The regime concept and natural trends in the production of Pacific salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 56, 516-526.
Behrenfeld, M.J., A.J. Bale, Z.S. Kolber, J. Aiken, and P.G. Falkowsky, 1996: Confirmation of iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature, 383, 508-516.
Bijlsma, L., C.N. Ehler, R.J.T. Klein, S.M. Kulshrestha, R.F. McLean, N. Mimura, R.J. Nicholls, L.A. Nurse, H. Pérez Nieto, E.Z. Stakhiv, R.K. Turner, and R.A. Warrick, 1996: Coastal zones and small islands. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 289-324.
Bird, E.C.F., 1993: Submerging Coasts: The Effects of a Rising Sea Level on Coastal Environments. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom, 184 pp.
Bisbal, G.A. and W.E. McConnaha, 1998: Consideration of ocean conditions in the management of salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 55, 2178-2186.
Boersma, P.D., 1998: Populations trends of the Galapagos Penguin—Impacts of El Niño and La Niña. Condor, 100(2), 245-253.
Bray, M.J. and J.M. Hooke, 1997: Prediction of soft-cliff retreat with accelerating sea level rise. Journal of Coastal Research, 13(2), 453-467.
Bricker-Urso, S.S., W. Nixon, J.K. Cochran, D.J. Hirschberg, and C. Hunt, 1989: Accretion rates and sediment accumulation in Rhode Island salt marshes. Estuaries, 12, 300-317.
Brinson, M.M., R.R. Christian, and L.K. Blum, 1995: Multiple states in the sea-level induced transition from terrestrial forest to estuary. Estuaries, 18, 648-659.
Broecker, W.S., 1994: An unstable superconveyor. Nature, 367, 414-415.
Broecker, W.S., 1997: Thermohaline circulation, the achilles heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance? Science, 278, 1582-1588.
Brown, B.E., 1997: Coral bleaching: causes and consequences. Coral Reefs, 16, 129-138.
Brown, B.E., R.P. Dunne, and H. Chansang, 1996: Coral bleaching relative to elevated sea surface temperature in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) over the last 50 years. Coral Reefs, 15, 151-152.
Brown, B.E. and Suharsono, 1990: Damage and recovery of coral reefs affected by El Niño-related seawater warming in the Thousand Islands, Indonesia. Coral Reefs, 8, 163-170.
Brown, B.E., R.P. Dunne, M.S. Goodson, and A.E. Douglas, 2000: Bleaching patterns in reef corals. Nature, 404, 142-143.
Bruun, P., 1962: Sea level rise as a cause of shore erosion. Journal of Waterways and Harbors Division—ASCE, 88, 117-130.
Bruun, P., 1988: The Bruun Rule of erosion by sea-level rise: a discussion of large-scale two and three-dimensional useages. Journal of Coastal Research, 4, 627-648.
Bryant, D., L. Burke, J.W. McManus, and M. Spalding, 1998: Reefs at Risk: A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA, 56 pp. Available online at
Burton, I., R.W. Kates, and G.F. White, 1993: The Environment as Hazard. The Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2nd. ed., 90 pp.
Butler, R., W.T.D. Wiliams, N. Warnock, and M.A. Bishop, 1997: Wind assistance: a requirement for migration of shorebirds? The Auk, 114(3), 456-466.
Caddy, J.F. and P.G. Rodhouse, 1998: Cephalopod and groundfish landings: evidence for ecological change in global fisheries? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 8, 431-444.
Cahoon, D.R. and J.C. Lynch, 1997: Vertical accretion and shallow subsidence in a mangrove forest of southwestern Florida, USA. Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 1, 173-186.
Cahoon, D.R., J.W. Day Jr., D.J. Reed, and R.S. Young, 1998: Global climate change and sea-level rise: estimating the potential for submergence of coastal wetlands. In: Vulnerability of Coastal Wetlands in the Southeastern United States: Climate Change Research Results [Guntenspergen, G.R. and B.A. Varin (eds.)]. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Biological Science Report, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 21-35.
Caldeira, K. and P.B. Duffy, 2000: The role of the Southern Ocean in uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Science, 287, 620-622.
Cane, M.A., A.C. Clement, A. Kaplan, Y. Kushir, R. Pozdayakov, S. Seager, and E. Zebiak, 1997: Twentieth century sea surface temperature trends. Science, 275, 957-960.
Canziani, O.F., S. Diaz, E. Calvo, M. Campos, R. Carcavallo, C.C. Cerri, C. Gay-García, L.J. Mata, and A. Saizar, 1998: Latin America. In: The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. Special Report of IPCC Working Group II [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 187-230.
Capobianco, M., H.J, DeVriend, R.J. Nicholls, and M.J.F. Stive, 1999: Coastal area impact and vulnerability assessment: the point of view of a morphodynamic modeler. Journal of Coastal Research, 15, 701-716.
Carvalho, P. and B. Clarke, 1998: Ecological sustainability of the South Australian coastal aquaculture management policies. Coastal Management, 26, 281-290.
Cash, D.W. and S.C. Moser, 2000: Linking global and local scales: designing dynamic assessment and management processes. Global Environmental Change, 10(2), 109-120.
Chao, P.T. and B.F. Hobbs, 1997: Decision analysis of shoreline protection under climate change uncertainty. Water Resources Research, 33(4), 817-829.
Chen, X., 1998: Changjian (Yangtze) River Delta, China. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 838-857.
Chen, X. and D.J. Stanley, 1998: Sea-level rise on eastern China's Yangtze Delta. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 360-366.
Chen, X. and Y. Zong, 1999: Major impacts of sea-level rise on agriculture in the Yangtze Delta area around Shanghai. Applied Geography, 19, 69-84.
CHGE, 1999: Extreme Weather Events: The Health and Consequences of the 1997/98 El Niño and La Niña [Epstein, P.R. (ed.)]. Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, 41 pp.
Clark, M.J., 1998: Flood insurance as a management strategy for United Kingdom coastal resilience. Geographical Journal, 164, 333-343.
Coale, K.H., K.S. Johnson, S. Fitzwater, R. Gordon, S. Tanner, F. Chavez, L. Ferioli, P. Nightingale, D. Cooper, W. Cochlan, M. Landry, J. Constatinou, G. Rollwagen, A. Trasvina, and R. Kudela, 1996: A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature, 383, 495-501.
Codignotto, J.O., 1997: Geomorfologia y dinámica costera (Geomorphology and coastal dynamics). In: El Mar Argentino y Sus Recursos Pesqueros [Boschi, E.E. (ed.)]. Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Pesquero, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 1, 89-105, (in Spanish).
Cohen, J.E., C. Small, A. Mellinger, J. Gallup, and J. Sachs, 1997: Estimates of coastal populations. Science, 278, 1211-1212.
Cole, J. and J. McGlade, 1998: Clupeoid population variability, the environment and satellite imagery in coastal upwelling systems. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 8, 445-471.
Costanza, R., R. d'Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Linburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O'Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt, 1997: The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253-260.
Cowell, P.J. and B.G. Thom, 1994: Morphodynamics of coastal evolution. In: Coastal Evolution: Late Quaternary Shoreline Morphodynamics [Carter, R.W.G. and C.D. Woodroffe (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 33-86.
Crowell, M., H. Leiken, and M.K. Buckley, 1999: Evaluation of coastal erosion hazards study: an overview. Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue), 28, 2-9.
Dallimore, S.R., S. Wolfe, and S.M. Solomon, 1996: Influence of ground ice and permafrost on coastal evolution, Richards Island, Beaufort Sea coast, NWT. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 33, 664-675.
Day, J.W., J.F. Martin, L. Cordoch, and P.H. Templet, 1997: System functioning as a basis for sustainable management of deltaic ecosystems. Coastal Management 25, 115-153.
Day, J.W., J. Rybvzyk, F. Scarton, A. Rismondo, D. Are, and G. Cecconi, 1999: Soil accretionary dynamics, sea-level rise and the survival of wetlands in Venice Lagoon: a field and modelling approach. Estuarine and Coastal Shelf Science, 49, 607-628.
de Baar, H.J.W., J.T.M. de Jong, D.C.E. Bakker, B.M. Löscher, C. Veth, U. Bathmann, and V. Semtacek, 1995: Importance of iron for plankton blooms and carbon dioxide drawdown in the Southern Ocean. Nature, 373, 412-415.
de la Mare, W.K., 1997: Abrupt mid-twentieth-century decline in Antarctic sea ice extent from whaling records. Nature, 389, 57-60.
Dean, R.G., 1990: Beach response to sea level change. In: The Sea [le Méhauté, B. and D.M. Hanes (eds.)]. John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, 9, 869-887.
Deser, C., M.A. Alexander, and M.S. Timlin, 1996: Upper-ocean thermal variations in the North Pacific during 1970-1991. Journal of Climate, 9(8), 1840-1855.
DETR, 1999: Climate Change and its Impacts: Stabilisation of CO2 in the Atmosphere. United Kingdom Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, The Met Office, Bracknell, UK, 28 pp.
Dionne, J.-C., 1986: Érosion récente des marais intertidaux de l'estuaire du Saint-Laurent (Recent erosion of intertidal marshes in the St. Lawrence estuary). Géographie Physique et Quaternaire, 40, 307-323 (in French).
Done, T.J., 1999: Coral community adaptability to environmental change at scales of regions, reefs and reef zones. American Zoologist, 39, 66-79.
Dolman, P.M. and W.J. Sutherland, 1994: The response of bird populations to habitat loss. Ibis, 137, S38-S46.
Doornkamp, J.C., 1998: Coastal flooding, global warming and environmental management. Journal of Environmental Management, 52(4), 327-333.
Douglas, B.C., M. Crowell, and S.P. Leatherman, 1998: Considerations for shoreline position prediction. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 1025-1033.
Duffy, D.C. and D.C. Schneider, 1994: Seabird-fishery interactions: a manager's guide In: Seabirds on Islands: Threats, Case Studies and Action Plans [Nettleship, D.N., J. Burger, and M. Gochfeld (eds.)]. BirdLife Conservation, Series 1, BirdLife International, London, United Kingdom, pp. 26-38.
Ebbesmeyer, C.C., D.R. Cayan, D.R. McLain, F.H. Nichols, D.H. Peterson, and K.T. Redmond, 1991: 1976 step in the Pacific climate: forty environmental changes between 1968-1975 and 1977-1984. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Pacific Climate (PACLIM) Workshop, April 1990 [Betancourt, J.L. and V.L. Tharp (eds.)]. California Department of Water Resources, Interagency Ecological Studies Program, Technical Report No. 26, Asilomar, CA, USA, pp. 115-126.
Edinger, E.N., J. Jompa, G.V. Limmon, W. Widjatmoro, and M.J. Risk, 1998: Reef degradation and coral biodiversity in Indonesia: effects of land-based pollution, destructive fishing practices and changes over time. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36, 617-630.
Eitner, V., 1996: Geomorphological response of the East Frisian barrier islands to sea-level rise: an investigation of past and future evolution. Geomorphology, 15, 57-65.
Ellison, J.C., 1993: Mangrove retreat with rising sea level, Bermuda. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 37, 75-87.
Ellison, J.C. and D.R. Stoddart, 1991: Mangrove ecosystem collapse during predicted sea-level rise: Holocene analogues and implications. Journal of Coastal Research, 7, 151-165.
El-Raey, M., K.Dewidar, and M. El Hattab, 1999: Adaptation to the impacts of sea level rise in Egypt. Climate Research (Special Issue), 6, 117-128.
El-Raey, M., Y. Fouda, and S. Nasr, 1997: GIS assessment of the vulnerability of the Rosetta area, Egypt to impacts of sea rise. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 47(1), 59-77.
El-Raey, M., O. Frihy, S.M. Nasr, and K.H. Dewidar, 1999: Vulnerability assessment of sea-level rise over Port Said governate, Egypt. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 56, 113-128.
Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinkewr, T.M. Williams, and D.F. Doak, 1998: Killer whale predation on sea otters linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science, 282, 473-475.
Everett, J.T., A. Krovnin, D. Lluch-Belda, E. Okemwa, H.A. Regier, and J.-P. Troadec, 1996: Fisheries. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 511-537.
Ewel, K.C., R.R. Twilley, and J.E. Ong, 1998: Different kinds of mangrove forests provide different goods and services. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7, 83-94.
Falkowsky, P.G., R.T. Barber, V. Semtacek, 1998: Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281, 200-206.
FAO, 1998: Yearbook of Fishery Statistics 1996 Capture Production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Farnsworth, E.J., 1998: Issues of spatial, taxonomic and temporal scale in delineating links between mangrove diverstiy and ecosystem function. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7, 15-25.
Field, C.D., J.G. Osborn, L.L. Hoffman, J.F. Polsenberg, D.A. Ackerly, J.A. Berry, O. Bjorkman, A. Held, P.A. Matson, and H.A. Mooney, 1998: Mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem function. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7(1), 3-14.
Fifita, N.P., N. Mimura, and N. Hori, 1992: Assessment of the vulnerability of the Kingdom of Tonga to sea-level rise. In: Global Climate Change and the Rising Challenge of the Sea. Proceedings of the International Workshop held on Margarita Island, Venezuela, March 9-13, 1992. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA, pp. 119-139.
Forbes, D.L., 1996: Coastal geology and hazards of Niue. South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission, Technical Report 233, Suva, Fiji, 100 pp. (plus appendices and map).
Forbes, D.L. and R.B. Taylor, 1994: Ice in the shore zone and the geomorphology of cold coasts. Progress in Physical Geography, 18, 59-89.
Forbes, D.L., J.D. Orford, R.W.G. Carter, J. Shaw, and S.C. Jennings, 1995: Morphodynamic evolution, self-organization, and instability of coarse-clastic barriers on paraglacial coasts. Marine Geology, 126, 63-85.
Forbes, D.L., J.D. Orford, R.B. Taylor, and J. Shaw, 1997a: Interdecadal variation in shoreline recession on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. In: Proceedings of the Canadian Coastal Conference '97, Guelph, Ontario. Canadian Coastal Science and Engineering Association, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 360-374.
Forbes, D.L., J. Shaw, and R.B. Taylor, 1997b: Climate change impacts in the coastal zone of Atlantic Canada. In: Climate Variability and Climate Change in Atlantic Canada [Abraham, J., T. Canavan, and R. Shaw, (eds.)]. Canada Country Study: Climate Impacts and Adaptation, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 6, 51-66.
Francis, R.C., S.R. Hare, A.B. Hollowed, and W.S. Wooster, 1998: Effects of interdecadal climate variability on the oceanic ecosystems of the North East Pacific. Fisheries Oceanography, 7(1), 1-21.
Garcia, S.M. and D.J. Staples, 2000: Sustainability indicators in marine capture species: introduction to the special issue. Marine and Freshwater Research, 51, 381-384.
Gargett, A.E., 1997: The optimal stability window: a mechanism underlying decadal fluctuations in North Pacific salmon stocks. Fisheries Oceanography, 6, 109-117.
Gattuso, J.-P., D. Allemand, and M. Frankignoulle, 1999: Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community level in coral reefs: a review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry. American Zoologist, 39, 160-183.
Glynn, P.W., 1996: Coral reef bleaching: facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biology, 2, 495-509.
Gommes, R., J. du Guerny, F. Nachtergaele, and R. Brinkman, 1998: Potential Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on Populations and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, SD (Sustainable Development) Dimensions/Special. Available online at
Goreau, T.J., 1992: Bleaching and reef community change in Jamaica: 1951-1991. American Zoologist, 32, 683-695.
Gorman, L., A. Morang, and R. Larson, 1998: Monitoring the coastal environment; part IV: mapping, shoreline changes, and bathymetric analysis. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 61-92.
Gu, D. and S.G.H. Philander, 1997: Interdecadal climatic fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the tropics and extratropics. Science, 275, 805-807.
Guley, S.K. and L. Hasse, 1999: Changes in wind waves in the North Atlantic over the last 30 years. International Journal of Climatology, 19, 1091-1117.
Hanaki, K., K. Takara, T. Hanazato, H. Hirakuchi, and H. Kayanne, 1998: Impacts on hydrology/water resources and water environment. In: Global Warming: The Potential Impact on Japan [Nishioka, S. and H. Harasawa (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 131-163.
Hansell, R.I.C., J.R. Malcolm, H. Welch, R.L. Jefferies, and P.A. Scott, 1998: Atmospheric change and biodiversity in the Arctic. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 49, 303-325.
Harris, G.P., F.B. Griffiths, and L. Clementson, 1992: Climate and fisheries off Tasmania: interactions of physics, food chains and fish. South African Journal of Marine Scoience, 12, 585-597.
Harvell, C.D., K. Kim, J.M. Burkholder, R.R. Colwell, P.R. Epstein, J. Grimes, E.E. Hofman, E. Lipp, A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, R.M. Overstreet, J.W. Porter, G.W. Smith, and G. Vasta, 1999: Emerging marine diseases: climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science, 285, 1505-1510.
Harvey, N., B. Clouston, and P. Carvalho, 1999: Improving coastal vulnerability assessment methodologies for integrated coastal zone management. Australian Geographical Studies, 37(1), 50-69.
Heinz Center, 1999: The Hidden Costs of Coastal Hazards: Implications for Risk Assessment and Mitigation. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 220 pp.
Heinz Center, 2000: Evaluation of Erosion Hazard. Report prepared for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Heinz Center, Washington, DC, USA, 205 pp. Also available online at
Henderson-Sellars, A., H. Zhang, G. Berz, K. Emanuel, W. Gray, C. Landsea, G. Holland, J. Lighthill, S-L. Shieh, P. Webster, and K. McGuffie, 1998: Tropical cyclones and global climate change: a post-IPCC assessment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79, 19-38.
Héquette, A., M. Desrosiers, and D.L. Forbes, 1995: The role of shoreline configuration and coastal geomorphology in nearshore sediment transport under storm combined flows, Canadian Beaufort Sea. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Change. Workshop Report 105, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, Paris, France, pp. 563-570.
Hinch, S., G.M.C. Healey, R.E. Diewert, K.A. Thomson, R. Hourston, M.A. Henderson, and F. Juanes, 1995: Potential effects of climate change on marine growth and survival of Fraser River sockeye salmon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 52, 2651-2659.
Hiyama, Y., H. Nishida, and T. Goto, 1995: Interannual fluctuations in recruitment of growth of the sardine, Sardinops melanostictus, in the Sea of Japan and adjacent waters. Research in Population Biology, 37(2), 177-183.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., 1999: Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research, 50, 839-866.
Holt, T., 1999: A classification of ambient climatic conditions during extreme surge events off Western Europe. International Journal of Climatology, 19, 725-744.
Hunt, G.L. and R.W. Furness, 1996: Seabirds/Fish Interactions, with Particular Reference to Seabirds in the North Sea. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Cooperative Research Report No. 216, 87 pp.
IPCC, 1998: The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. Special Report of IPCC Working Group II [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 517 pp.
Ittekkot, V., S. Jilan, E. Miles, E. Desa, B.N. Desai, J.T. Everett, J.J. Magnuson, A. Tsyban, and S. Zuta, 1996: Oceans. In: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 267-288.
Iwashima, T. and R. Yamamoto, 1993: A statistical analysis of the extreme events: Long-term trend of heavy daily precipitation. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 71, 637-640.
Izrael, Yu.A. and A.V. Tsyban, 1983: Anthropogenic Ecology of the Ocean. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, Russian Federation, 528 pp. (in Russian).
Jallow, B.P., S. Tours, M.M.K. Barrow, and A.A. Mthieu, 1999: Coastal zone of The Gambia and the Abidjan region in Côte d'Ivoir: sea level rise vulnerability, response strategies, and adaptation options. In: National Assessment Results of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses [Mimura, N. (ed.)]. Climate Research (Special Issue), 6, 137-143.
Jelgersma, S., 1996: Land subsidence in coastal lowlands. In Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence [Milliman, J.D. and B.U. Haq (eds.)]. J. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 47-62.
Jimenez, J.A. and A. Sanchez-Arcilla, 1997: Physical impacts of climatic change on deltaic coastal systems (II): driving terms. Climatic Change, 35, 95-118.
Jones, R.G., J.M. Murphy, M. Noguer, and S.B. Keen, 1997: Simulation of climate change over Europe using a nested regional-climate model: comparison of driving and regional model responses to a doubling of carbon dioxide. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 123, 265-292.
Joos, F., G.K. Plattner, T.F. Stocker, O. Marchal, and A. Schmittner, 1999: Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2. Science, 284, 464-467.
Kaminsky, G.M., P. Ruggiero, and G. Gelfenbaum, 1998: Monitoring coastal change in southwest Washington and northwest Oregon during the 1997/98 El Niño. Shore & Beach, 66(3), 42-51.
Kaplin, P.A. and A.O. Selivanov, 1995: Recent coastal evolution of the Caspian Sea as a natural model for coastal responses to the possible acceleration of global sea-level rise. Marine Geology, 124, 161-175.
Karl, T.R. and R.W. Knight, 1998: Secular trends of precipitation amount, frequency and intensity in the United States. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79, 231-241.
Kawasaki, T., 1991: The relation of the change in pelagic fish populations and their environment. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium [Kawasaki, T. (ed.)]. Pergamon Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 47-60 (in Japanese).
Kawasaki, T., S. Tanaka, Y. Toba, and A. Taniguchi (eds), 1991: Long-Term Variability of Pelagic Fish Populations and Their Environment. Pergamon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 402 pp.
Kay, R. and J. Hay, 1993: A decision support approach to coastal vulnerability and resilience assessment: a tool for integrated coastal management. In: Vulnerability Assessment to Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Zone Management. Proceedings of the IPCC Eastern Hemisphere Workshop, Tsukuba, Japan, 3-6 August 1993 [McLean, R.F. and N. Mimura (eds.)]. Department of Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra, Australia, pp. 213-125.
Kent, M.L. and T.T. Poppe, 1998: Diseases of Seawater Netpen-Reared Salmonid Fishes. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC, Canada, 137 pp.
Kimura, S., N. Munenori, and T. Sugimoto, 1997: Migration of albacore, Thunnus alalunga, in the North Pacific Ocean in relation to large oceanic phenomena. Fisheries Oceanography, 6(2), 51-57.
King, S.E. and J.M. Lester, 1995: The value of salt-marsh as a sea defence. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 30(3), 180-189.
Klein, R.J.T., E.N. Buckley, R.J. Nicholls, S. Ragoonaden, J. Aston, M. Capobianco, M.Mizutani, and P.D. Nunn, 2000: Coastal adaptation. In: Methodologies and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer. A Special Report of IPCC Working Group III [Metz, B., O.R. Davidson, J.W. Martens, S.N. van Rooijen, and L.Van Wie McGrory (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, USA, pp.349-372.
Klein, R.J.T. and R.J. Nicholls, 1999: Assessment of coastal vulnerability to climate change. Ambio, 28(2), 182-187.
Kleypas, J.A., R.W. Buddemeier, D. Archer, J. Gattuso, C. Landon, and B.N. Opdyke, 1999: Geochemical consequences of increased carbon dioxide in coral reefs. Science, 284, 118-120.
Knutson, T.R., R.E. Tuleya, and Y. Kurihara, 1998: Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a CO2-warmed climate. Science, 279, 1018-1020.
Komar, P.D., 1998a: Beach Processes and Sedimentation. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2nd. ed., 544 pp.
Komar, P.D., 1998b: The 1997-98 El Niño and erosion on the Oregon coast. Shore & Beach, 66(3), 33-41.
Komar, P.D., J. Allan, G.M. Dias-Mendez, J.J. Marra, and P. Ruggiero, 2000: El Niño and La Niña: erosion processes and impacts. In: Abstracts of the 27th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, July 16-22, 2000, Sydney, Australia. Vol. 1, Paper 2. Australian Institution of Engineers, Australia, Barton, ACT, Australia
Kont, A., U. Ratas, and E. Puurmann, 1997: Sea-level rise impact of coastal areas of Estonia. Climatic Change, 36, 175-184.
Kushmaro, A., Y. Loya, M. Fine, and E. Rosenberg, 1996: Bacterial infection and coral bleaching. Nature, 380, 396.
Kushmaro, A., E. Rosenberg, M. Fine, Y. Ben Haim, and Y. Loya, 1998: Effect of temperature on bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica by Vibrio AK-1. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 171, 131-137.
Lanfredi, N.W., J.L. Pousa, and E.E.D. d'Onofrio, 1998: Sea-level rise and related potential hazards on the Argentine Coast. Journal of Coastal Research, 14(1), 47-60.
Langenberg, H., A. Pfizenmayer, H. von Storch, and J. Sündermann, 1999: Storm-related sea level variations along the North Sea coast: natural variability and anthropogenic change. Continental Shelf Research, 19, 821-842.
Leafe, R., J. Pethick, and I. Townsend, 1998: Realizing the benefits of shoreline management. Geographical Journal, 164, 282-290.
Leatherman, S.P., K. Zhang, and B.C. Douglas, 2000: Sea level rise shown to drive coastal erosion. Eos (Transactions American Geophysical Union), 81(6), 55-57.
Lehodey, P., J.M. Andre, M. Bertignac, J. Hampton, A. Stoens, C. Menkes, L. Memery, and N. Grima, 1998: Predicting skipjack tuna forage distributions in the equatorial Pacific using a coupled dynamical bio-geochemical model. Fisheries Oceanography, 7, 317-325.
Lehodey, P., M. Bertignac, J. Hampton, A. Lewis, and J. Picaut, 1997: El Niño-Southern Oscillation and tuna in the western Pacific. Nature, 389, 715-717.
Lehtonen, H., 1996: Potential effects of global warming on northern European freshwater fish and fisheries. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 3, 59-71.
Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, and C. Stephens, 2000: Warming of the world ocean. Science, 287, 2225-2229.
Lipp, E.K. and J.B. Rose, 1997: The role of seafood in foodborne diseases in the United States of America. Reviews of Science and Technology, 16(2), 620-640.
Lorenzo, E. and L. Teixeira, 1997: Sensitivity of storm waves in Montevideo (Uruguay) to a hypothetical climate change. Climate Research, 9, 81-85.
Maddrell, R.J., 1996: Managed coastal retreat, reducing flood risks and protection costs, Dungeness Nuclear Power Station, UK. Coastal Engineering, 28, 1-15.
Mahnken, C., G. Ruggerone, W. Waknitz, and T. Flagg, 1998: A historical perspective on salmonid production from Pacific rim hatcheries. In: Assessment and Stock Status of Pacific Rim Salmonid Stocks [Welch, D.W., D.M. Eggers, K. Wakabayashi, and V.I. Karpenko (eds.)]. Bulletin Number 1, North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp. 38-53.
Mantua, N.J., S.R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J.M. Wallace, and R.C. Francis, 1997: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin American Meteorological Society, 78, 1069-1079.
Marsh, R., B. Petrie, C.R. Weidman, R.R. Dickson, J.W. Loder, C.G. Hannah, K. Frank, and K. Drinkwater, 1999: The 1882 tilefish kill—a cold event in shelf waters off the north-eastern United States? Fisheries Oceanography, 8(1), 39-49.
Marshall, P.A. and A.H. Baird, 2000: Bleaching of corals on the Great Barrier Reef: differential susceptibilities among taxa. Coral Reefs, 19, 155-163.
Marton, R.M., 1990: Community structure, density and standing crop of fishes in a subtropical Australian mangrove area. Marine Biology, 105, 385-394.
McGowan, J.A., D.R. Cayan, L.M. Dorman, 1998: Climate-ocean variability and ecosystem response in North Pacific. Science, 281, 201-217.
Mearns, L.O., F. Giorgio, L. McDaniel, and C. Shields, 1995: Analysis of daily variability of precipitation in a nested regional climate model: comparison with observations and doubled CO2 results. Global Planetary Change, 10, 55-78.
Melloul, A.J. and L.C. Goldberg, 1997: Monitoring of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: basis and local concerns. Journal of Environmental Management, 51, 73-86.
Michener, W.K., E.R. Blood, K.L. Bildstein, M.M. Brinson, and L.R. Gardner, 1997: Climate change, hurricanes and tropical storms and rising sea level in coastal wetlands (review). Ecological Adaptations, 7, 770-801.
Miller, K.A., 2000: Pacific salmon fisheries: climate, information and adaptation in a conflict-ridden context. Climatic Change, 45, 37-61.
Mimura, N. and H. Harasawa (eds.), 2000: Data Book of Sea-Level Rise 2000. Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan, 128 pp.
Mimura, N. and H. Nobuoka, 1996: Verification of the Bruun Rule for the estimation of shoreline retreat caused by sea-level rise. In: Proceedings of Coastal Dynamics '95, Gdansk, Poland, September 4-8, 1995. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, USA, pp. 607-616.
Mimura, N., J. Tsutsui, T. Ichinose, H. Kato, and K. Sakaki, 1998: Impacts on infrastructure and socio-economic system. In: Global Warming: The Potential Impact on Japan [Nishioka, S. and H. Harasawa (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 165-201.
Miyagi, T., C. Tanavud, P. Pramojanee, K. Fujimoto, and Y. Mochida, 1999: Mangrove habitat dynamics and sea-level change—a scenario and GIS mapping of the changing process of the delta and estuary type mangrove habitat in southwestern Thailand. Tropics, 8, 179-196.
Moberg, F. and C. Folke, 1999: Ecological goods and services of coral reef ecosystems. Ecological Economics, 29, 215-233.
Montevecchi, W.A. and R.A. Myers, 1997: Centurial and decadal oceanographic influences on changes in northern gannet populations and diets in the north-west Atlantic: implications for climate change. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Journal of Marine Science, 54, 608-614.
Moore, W.S., 1999: The subterranean estuary: a reaction zone of ground water and sea water. Marine Chemistry, 65, 111-125.
Morisugi, H., E. Ohno, K. Hoshi, A. Takagi, and Y. Takahashi, 1995: Definition and measurement of a household's damage cost caused by an increase in storm surge frequency due to sea level rise. Journal of Global Environment Engineering, 1, 127-136.
Mortsch, L.D., 1998; Assessing the impact of climate change on the Great Lakes shoreline wetlands. Climatic Change, 40, 391-416.
Mullin, M.M., 1998: Interannual and interdecadal variation in California Current zooplankton: Calanus in the late 1950s and early 1990s. Global Change Biology, 4, 115-119.
Mulrenna, M.E. and C.D. Woodroffe, 1998: Saltwater intrusion into the coastal plains of the Lower Mary River, Northern Territory, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management, 54, 169-188.
Nairn, R.B., S. Solomon, N. Kobayashi, and J. Virdrine, 1998: Development and testing of a thermal-mechanical numerical model for predicting Arctic shore erosion processes. In: Permafrost: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, Yellowknife, NWT, June 23-27, 1998 [Lewkowicz, A.G. and M. Allard (eds.)]. Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, pp. 789-795.
Neumann, J.E., G. Yohe, R. Nicholls, and M.Manion, 2000: Sea-Level Rise and Global Climate Change: A Review of Impacts to U.S. Coasts. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Arlington, VA, USA, 32 pp.
Nicholls, R.J., 1998: Assessing erosion of sandy beaches due to sea-level rise. In: Geohazard in Engineering Geology [Maund, J.G. and M. Eddleston (eds.)]. Engineering Geology Special Publications, Geological Society, London, United Kingdom, 15, 71-76.
Nicholls, R.J. and J. Branson, 1998: Coastal resilience and planning for an uncertain future: an introduction. Geographical Journal, 164(3), 255-258.
Nicholls, R.J. and N. Mimura, 1998: Regional issues raised by sea-level rise and their policy implications. Climate Research, 11(1), 5-18.
Nicholls, R.J., F.M.J. Hoozemans, and M. Marchand, 1999: Increasing flood risk and wetland losses due to sea-level rise: regional and global analyses. Global Environmental Change, 9, S69-S87.
Nunn, P.D. and N. Mimura, 1997: Vulnerability of South Pacific island nations to sea level rise. Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue), 24, 133-151.
Nunn, P.D., J. Veitayaki, V. Ram-Bidesi, and A. Venisea, 1999: Coastal issues for oceanic islands: implications for human futures, Natural Resources Forum, 23, 195-207.
Nurse, L.A., R.F. McLean, and A.G. Suarez, 1998: Small island states. In: The Regional Impacts of Climate Change: An Assessment of Vulnerability. Special Report of IPCC Working Group II [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 331-354.
Nuttle, W., M. Brinson, and D. Cahoon, 1997: Processes that maintain coastal wetlands in spite of rising sea level. Eos (Transactions American Geophysical Union), 78(25), 257-261.
O'Brien, C.M., C.J. Fox, B. Planque, and J. Casey, 2000: Climate variability and North Sea cod. Nature, 404, 142.
Olivo, M.D., 1997: Assessment of the vulnerability of Venezuela to sea-level rise. Climate Research, 9(1-2), 57-65.
Orson, R.A., R.S. Warren, and W.A. Niering, 1998: Interpreting sea level rise and rates of vertical marsh accretion in a southern New England tidal salt marsh. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 47, 419-429.
Panapitukkul, N., C.M. Duarte, U. Thampanya, P. Kheowvonngsri, N. Srichai, O. Geertz-Hansen, J. Terrados, and S. Boromthanarath, 1998: Mangrove colonization: mangrove progression over the growing Pak Phanang (SE Thailand) mud flat. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 47, 51-61.
Parkinson, R.W., R.D. DeLaune, and J.C. White, 1994: Holocene sea-level rise and the fate of mangrove forests within the wider Caribbean region. Journal of Coastal Research, 10, 1077-1086.
Perez, R.T., L.A. Amadore, and R.B. Feir, 1999: Climate change impacts and responses in the Philippines coastal sector. Climate Research (Special Issue), 6, 97-107.
Peters, E.J., 1999: Native people and the environmental regime in the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. Arctic, 52(4), 395-410.
Phongsuwan, N., 1998: Extensive coral mortality as a result of bleaching in the Andaman Sea in 1995. Coral Reefs, 17, 70.
Pirazzoli, P. and A. Tomasin, 1999: Recent abatement of easterly winds in the northern Adriatic. International Journal of Climatology, 19, 1205-1219.
Pittock, A.B., 1999: Coral reefs and environmental change: adaptation to what? American Zoologist, 39(1), 110-129.
Polovina, J.J., 1996: Decadal variation in the trans-Pacific migration of northern bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) coherent with climate-induced change in prey abundance. Fisheries Oceanography, 5(2), 114-119.
Polovina, J.J., G.T. Mitchum, and G.T. Evans, 1995: Decadal and basin-scale variation in mixed layer depth and the impact on biological production in the central and north Pacific, 1960-1988. Deep Sea Research, 42, 1701-1716.
Pope, J., 1997: Responding to coastal erosion and flooding damages. Journal of Coastal Research, 13(3), 704-710.
Reimnitz, E., P.W. Barnes, and J.R. Harper, 1990: A review of beach nourishment from ice transport of shoreface materials, Beaufort Sea, Alaska. Journal of Coastal Research, 6, 439-470.
Ren, M., 1994: Relative sea-level rise in China and its socioeconomic implications. Marine Geodesy, 17, 37-44.
Ribic, C.A., D.G. Ainley, and L.B. Spear, 1997: Scale-related seabird-environmental relationships in Pacific equatorial waters, with reference to El Niño-Southern Oscillation events. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 156, 183-203.
Richardson, L.L., W.M. Goldberg, K.G. Kuta, R.B. Aronson, G.W. Smith, J.C. Halas, J.S. Feingold, and S.L. Miller, 1998: Florida's mystery coral-killer identified. Nature, 392, 557-558.
Richmond, B.M., B. Mieremet, and T.E. Reiss, 1997: Yap Islands natural coastal systems and vulnerability to potential accelerated sea-level rise. Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue), 24, 153-173.
Riggs, S.R., W.J. Cleary, and S.W. Snyder, 1995: Influence of inherited geologic framework on barrier shoreface morphology and dynamics. Marine Geology, 126, 213-234.
Roemmich, D. and J. McGowan, 1995: Climate warming and the decline of zooplantkon in the California current. Science, 267, 1324-1326.
Rönnbäck, P., 1999: The ecological basis for economic value of seafood production supported by mangrove ecosystems. Ecological Economics, 29, 235-252.
Rothrock, D.A, Y. Yu, and G.A. Maykut, 1999: Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 3469-3472.
Sabhasri, S. and K. Suwarnarat, 1996: Impact of sea level rise on flood control in Bangkok and vicinity. In: Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Subsidence: Causes, Consequences and Strategies [Milliman, J.D. and B.U. Haq (eds.)]. J. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 343-355.
Saenger, P., 1998: Mangrove vegetation: an evolutionary perspective. Marine and Freshwater Research, 49(4), 277-286.
Sagarin, R.D., J.P. Barry, S.E. Gilman, and C.H. Baxter, 1999: Climate-related change in an intertidal community over short and long time scales. Ecological Monographs, 69(4), 465-490.
Saizar, A., 1997: Assessment of a potential sea-level rise on the coast of Montevideo, Uruguay. Climate Research, 9(1-2), 73-79.
Sale, P.F., 1999: Coral reefs: recruitment in space and time. Nature, 397, 25-27.
Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and J.A. Jimenez, 1997: Physical impacts of climatic change on deltaic coastal systems: 1: an approach. Climatic Change, 35, 71-93.
Sandweiss, D.H., K.A. Maasch, D.F. Belknap, J.B. Richardson III, and H.B. Rollins, 1998: Discussion of Lisa E. Wells, 1996: The Santa Beach Ridge Complex. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 367-373.
Sarmiento, J.L. and C. Le Quéré, 1996: Oceanic carbon dioxide uptake in a model of century sale global warming. Science, 274, 1346-1350.
Sarmiento, J.L., T.M.C. Hughes, R.J. Stouffler, and S. Manabe, 1998: Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warming. Nature, 393, 245-249.
Schlager, W., 1999: Scaling of sedimentation rates and drowning of reefs and carbonate platforms. Geology, 27, 183-186.
Schubert, M., R. Blender, K. Fraedrich, F. Lunkeit, and J. Pertwitz, 1998: North Atlantic cyclones in CO2-induced warm climate simulations: frequency, intensity and tracks. Climate Dynamics, 14, 827-837.
Shaw, J., R.B. Taylor, S. Solomon, H.A. Christian, and D.L. Forbes, 1998a: Potential impacts of global sea-level rise on Canadian coasts. The Canadian Geographer, 42, 365-379.
Shaw, J., R.B. Taylor, D.L. Forbes, M.-H. Ruz, and S.M. Solomon, 1998b: Sensitivity of the Coasts of Canada to Sea-Level Rise. Bulletin 505, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 79 pp. (plus map).
Shepherd, S.A., J.R. Turrubiates-Morales, and K. Hall, 1998: Decline of the abalone fishery at La Natividad, Mexico: overfishing or climate change? Journal of Shellfish Research, 17(3), 839-846.
Sherif, M.M. and V.P. Singh, 1999: Effect of climate change on sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers. Hydrological Processes, 13, 1277-1287.
Short, A.D., A. Trembanis, and I. Turner, 2000: Beach oscillation, rotation and the Southern Oscillation: Narrabeen Beach, Australia. Abstracts of the 27th International Conference on Coastal Engineering, July 16-22, 2000, Sydney, Australia. Vol. 1, Paper 4. Australian Institution of Engineers, Australia, Barton, ACT, Australia.
Short, F.T. and H.A. Neckles, 1999: The effects of global climate change on seagrasses. Aquatic Botany, 63, 169-196.
Singh, V.S. and C.P. Gupta, 1999: Groundwater in a coral island. Environmental Geology, 37, 72-77.
Smith, R.C., D. Ainley, K. Baker, E. Domack, S. Emslie, B. Fraser, J. Kennett, A. Leventer, E. Mosley-Thompson, S. Stammerjohn, and M. Vernet, 1999: Marine ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Bioscience, 49, 393-404.
Snedaker, S.C., J.F. Meeder, R.S. Ross, and R.G. Ford, 1994: Discussion of Ellison and Stoddart, 1991. Journal of Coastal Research, 10, 497-498.
Söderqvist, T., W.J.Mitsch, and R.K.Turner, 2000: Valuation of wetlands in a landscape and institutional perspective. Ecological Economics, 35, 1-6.
Solomon, S.M. and D.L. Forbes, 1999: Coastal hazards and associated management issues on South Pacific islands. Ocean & Coastal Management, 42, 523-554.
Solomon, S.M., D.L. Forbes, and B. Kierstead, 1994: Coastal Impacts of Climate Change: Beaufort Sea Erosion Study. Canadian Climate Centre, Report 94-2, Environment Canada, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 34 pp.
Spalding, M.D. and A.M. Grenfell, 1997: New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas. Coral Reefs, 16, 225-230.
Springer, A.M., 1998: Is it all climate change? Why marine bird and mammal populations fluctuate in the North Pacific. In: Biotic Impacts of Extratropical Climate Variability in the Pacific [Holloway, G., P. Muller, and D. Henderson (eds.)]. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Hawaii, USA, pp. 109-120.
Springer, A.M., 1992: Walleye pollock in the North Pacific: how much difference do they really make? Fisheries Oceanography, 1, 80-96.
Stanley, D.J. and A.G. Warne, 1998: Nile Delta in its destruction phase. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 794-825.
Steele, J.H., 1996: Regime shifts in fisheries management. Fisheries Research, 25, 19-23.
Stein, E.D., F.Tabatabai, and R.F. Ambrose, 2000: Wetland mitigation banking: a framework for crediting and debiting. Environmental Management, 26(3), 233-250.
Stewart, R.W., B.D. Bornhold, H. Dragert, and R.E. Thomson, 1998: Sea level change. In: The Sea [Brink, K.H. and A.R. Robinson (eds.)]. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 10, 191-211.
Stirling, I., N.J. Lunn, and JJ. Iacozza, 1999: Long-term trends in the population ecology of polar bears in western Hudson Bay in relation to climatic change. Arctic, 52(3), 294-306.
Stone, G.W. and R.A. McBride, 1998: Louisiana barrier islands and their importance in wetland protection: forecasting shoreline change and subsequent response of wave climate. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 900-915.
Storlazzi, C.D. and G.B. Griggs, 2000: Influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events on the evolution of central California's shoreline. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 112(2), 236-249.
Streever, W.J., M. Callaghan-Perry, A. Searles, T. Stevens, and P. Svoboda, 1998: Public attitudes and values for wetland conservation in New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Environmental Management, 54, 1-14.
Stumpf, R.P. and J.W. Haines, 1998: Variations in tidal level in the Gulf of Mexico and implications for tidal wetlands. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 46, 165-173.
Suppiah, R. and K.J. Hennessy, 1998: Trends in total rainfall, heavy rain events, and number of dry days in Australia, 1910-1990. International Journal of Climatology, 18(10), 1141-1164.
Talge, H.K., E.M. Cockey, and R.G. Muller, 1995: A new disease in reef dwelling foraminifera: implications for coastal sedimentation. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25, 280-286.
Timmermann, A., J. Oberhuber, A. Bacher, M. Esch, M. Latif, and E. Roeckner, 1999: Increased El Niño frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming. Nature, 398, 694-696.
Titus, J.G., 1998: Rising seas, coastal erosion, and the takings clause: how to save wetlands and beaches without hurting property owners. Maryland Law Review, 57, 1279-1399.
Titus, J., R. Park, S. Leatherman, J. Weggle, M. Greene, S. Brown, C. Gaunt, M. Trehan, and G. Yohe, 1992: Greenhouse effect and sea level rise: the cost of holding back the sea. Coastal Management, 19, 219-233.
Trenberth, K.E., 1999: Conceptual framework for changes of extreme of the hydrological cycle with climate change. Climatic Change, 42, 327-339.
Trenberth, K. and T. Hoar, 1996: The 1990-1995 El Niño-Southern Oscillation event: largest on record. Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 57-60.
Trenhaile, A.S., 1997: Coastal Dynamics and Landforms. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 366 pp.
Tsyban, A.V., 1999a: The BERPAC Project: development and overview of ecological investigations in the Bering and Chukchi Seas. In: Dynamics of the Bering Sea [Loughlin, T.R. and O. Kiyotaka (eds.)]. North Pacific Marine Science Organization, University of Alaska Press, Fairbanks, AK, USA, pp. 713-729.
Tsyban, A.V., 1999b: Ecological investigations in the Russian Arctic seas: results and perspectives. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 9, 503-508.
Tsyban, A.V., J.T. Everett, and J.G. Titus, 1990: World oceans and coastal zones. In: Climate Change: The IPCC Impacts Assessment. Contribution of Working Group II to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Tegart, W.J.McG., G.W. Sheldon, and D.C. Griffiths (eds.)]. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, chapter 6, pp. 1-28.
Tunberg, B.G. and W.G. Nelson, 1998: Do climatic oscillations influence cyclical patterns of soft bottom macrobenthic communities on the Swedish west coast? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 170, 85-94.
Turner, R.K., P. Doktor, and W.N. Adger, 1995: Assessing the economic costs of sea level rise. Environment and Planning A, 27, 1777-1796.
Turner, R.K., S. Subak, and W.N. Adger, 1996: Pressures, trends, and impacts in coastal zones: interactions between socioeconomic and natural systems. Environmental Management, 20(2), 159-173.
Turner, R.K., I. Lorenzoni, N. Beaumont, I.J. Bateman, I.H. Langford, and A.L. McDonald, 1998: Coastal management for sustainable development: analysing environmental and socio-economic changes on the UK coast. Geographical Journal, 164(3), 269-281.
Tynan, C.T. and D.P. DeMaster, 1997: Observations and predictions of Arctic climate change: potential effects on marine mammals. Arctic, 50(4), 308-322.
Umitsu, M., 1997: Landforms and floods in the Ganges Delta and coastal lowland of Bangladesh. Marine Geodesy, 20, 77-87.
van de Plassche, O., K. van der Borg, and A.F.M. de Jong, 1999: Sea level-climate correlation during the past 1400 years: reply. Geology, 27, 190.
van de Plassche, O., K. van der Borg, and A.F.M. de Jong, 1998: Sea level-climate correlation during the past 1400 years. Geology, 26, 319-322.
Varekamp, J.C. and E. Thomas, 1998: Sea level rise and climate change over the last 1000 years. Eos (Transactions American Geophysical Union), 79, 69-75.
Varekamp, J.C., E. Thomas, and W.G. Thomson, 1999: Sea level-climate correlation during the past 1400 years: comment. Geology, 27, 189-190.
Veit, R R., P. Pyle, and J.A. McGowan, 1996: Ocean warming and long-term change in pelagic bird abundance within the California current system. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 139, 11-18.
Veitayaki, J., 1998: Traditional and community-based marine resources management system in Fiji: an evolving integrated process. Coastal Management, 26, 47-60.
Vyalov, S.S., A.S. Gerasimov, and S.M. Fotiev, 1998: Influence of global warming on the state and geotechnical properties of permafrost. In: Permafrost: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, Yellowknife, NWT, June 23-27,1998 [Lewkowicz, A.G. and M. Allard (eds.)]. Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, pp. 1097-1102.
Walsh, K.J.E. and J.J. Katzfey, 2000: The impact of climate change on the poleward movement of tropical cyclone-like vortices in a regional climate model. Journal of Climate, 13, 1116-1132.
Walsh, K.J.E and A.B. Pittock, 1998: Potential changes in tropical storms, hurricanes, and extreme rainfall events as a result of climate change. Climatic Change, 39, 199-213.
Ware, D.M., 1995: A century and a half of change in the climate of the North East Pacific. Fisheries Oceanography, 4, 267-277.
Warrick, R.A., C. Le Provost, M.F. Meier, J. Oerlemans, and P.L. Woodworth, 1996: Changes in sea level. In: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 359-405.
WASA, 1998: Changing waves and storms in the Northeast Atlantic. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Waves and Storms in the North Atlantic Group, 79(5), 741-760.
Webster, P.J., A.M. Moore, J.P. Loschnigg, and R.R. Leben, 1999: Coupled ocean-temperature dynamics in the Indian Ocean during 1997-1998. Nature, 401, 356-360.
Welch, D.W., Y. Ishida, and K. Nagasawa, 1998: Thermal limits and ocean migrations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): long-term consequences of global warming. Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Science, 55(1), 937-948.
West, J.J. and H. Dowlatabadi, 1999: On assessing the economic impacts of sea-level rise on developed coasts. In: Climate Change and Risk [Downing, T.E., A.J. Olsthoorn. and R.S.J. Tols (eds.)]. Routledge, London, United Kingdom, pp. 205-220.
West, J.J., M.J.Small, and H. Dowlatabadi, 2001: Storms, investor decisions, and the economic impacts of sea-level rise. Climatic Change, 48, 317-342.
Wijnberg, K.M. and J.H.J. Terwindt, 1995: Extracting decadal morphological behaviour from high-resolution, long-term bathymetric surveys along the Holland coast using eigenfunction analysis. Marine Geology, 126, 301-330.
Wilcock, P.R., D.S. Miller, R.H. Shea, and R.T. Kerkin, 1998: Frequency of effective wave activity and the recession of coastal bluffs: Calvert Cliffs, Maryland. Journal of Coastal Research, 14, 256-268.
Wilkinson, C.R., 1999: Global and local threats to coral reef functioning and existence: review and predictions. Marine and Freshwater Research, 50, 867-878.
Wilkinson, C.R. and R.W. Buddemeier, 1994: Global Climate Change and Coral Reefs: Implications for People and Reefs. Report of the UNEP-IOC-ASPEI-IUCN Global Task Team on the Implications of Climate Change on Coral Reefs. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland, 124 pp.
Wilkinson, C.R., O. Linden, H. Cesar, G. Hodgson, J. Rubens, and A. Strong, 1999: Ecological and socioeconomic impacts of 1998 coral mortality in the Indian Ocean: an ENSO impact and a warning of future change? Ambio, 28(2), 190-196.
Winter, A., R.S. Appeldoorn, A. Bruckner, E.H. Williams Jr., and C. Goenaga, 1998: Sea surface temperatures and coral reef bleaching off La Paguera, Puerto Rico (northeastern Caribbean Sea). Coral Reefs, 17, 377-382.
Wolfe, S.A., S.R. Dallimore, and S.M. Solomon, 1998: Coastal permafrost investigations along a rapidly eroding shoreline, Tuktoyaktuk, NWT. In: Permafrost: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference, Yellowknife, NWT, June 23-27, 1998 [Lewkowicz, A.G. and M. Allard (eds.)]. Centre d'études nordiques, Université Laval, Québec, Canada, pp. 1125-1131.
Wood, C.M. and D.G. McDonald (eds.), 1997: Global Warming: Implications for Freshwater and Marine Fish. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 425 pp.
Woodroffe, C.D., 1995: Response of tide-dominated mangrove shorelines in northern Australia to anticipated sea-level rise. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 20, 65-86.
Woodroffe, C.D., 1999: Response of mangrove shorelines to sea-level change. Tropics, 8, 159-177.
Wyllie-Echeverria, T. and W.S. Wooster, 1998: Year-to-year variations in Bering Sea ice cover and some consequences for fish distributions. Fisheries Oceanography, 7(2), 159-170.
Yamada, K., P.D. Nunn, N. Mimura, S. Machida, and M. Yamamoto, 1995: Methodology for the assessment of vulnerability of South Pacific island countries to sea-level rise and climate change. Journal of Global Environment Engineering, 1, 101-125.
Yohe, G.W., 1990: The cost of not holding back the sea: toward a national sample of economic vulnerability. Coastal Management, 18, 403-431.
Yohe, G.W. and J. Neumann, 1997: Planning for sea-level rise and shore protection under climate uncertainty. Climatic Change, 37(1), 243-270.
Yohe, G.W. and M.E. Schlesinger, 1998: Sea level change: the expected economic cost of protection or abandonment in the United States. Climatic Change, 38, 447-472.
Yohe, G.W., J. Neumann, P. Marshall, and H. Ameden, 1996: The economic cost of greenhouse-induced sea-level rise for developed property in the United States. Climatic Change, 32, 387-410.
Young, I., 1999: Seasonal variability of the global ocean wind and wave climate. International Journal of Climatology, 19, 931-950.
Zann, L., 1994: The status of coral reefs in south western Pacific islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 29, 53-55.
Zeider, R.B., 1997: Climate change vulnerability and response strategies for the coastal zone of Poland. Climatic Change, 36, 151-173.
Zhang, K., B.C. Douglas, and S.P. Leatherman, 2000: Twentieth-century storm activity along the U.S. east coast. Journal of Climate, 13, 1748-1761.

height="1" vspace="12">

Other reports in this collection

IPCC Homepage