Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

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15. North America Contents

Executive Summary

Climate Trends and Scenarios
Key Regional Concerns

Water Resources
Natural Resources
Protected Areas
Food and Fiber
Production Forestry
Carbon Sequestration—Adaptation Issues
Marine Fisheries
Human Health
Human Settlements and Infrastructure
Public and Private Insurance and Disaster Relief Systems
Adaptation Potential and Vulnerability

15.1. The North American Region

15.1.1. Previous Work
15.1.2. What is Different about the North American Region? High Level of Intensive Water Management Urbanization Continental Free Trade

15.1.3. Past to Present
15.1.4. Scenarios for the Future

15.2. Key Regional Characteristics

15.2.1. Water Resources Impacts and Adaptation Options Water Quality Flood Risks

15.2.2. Natural Resources Forests Changes in function of existing forests Wholesale changes in forest structure and function Fire Insects Vegetation In human settlements Protected Areas Mountains Wetlands Coastal/Marine Wildlife
15.2.3. Food and Fiber Agriculture Change in land use Crop yields and adaptation Response to climate variability and extreme events Vulnerability of livestock Role of changing water resources Carbon sequestration Production Forestry Marine Fisheries
15.2.4. Human Health Potential Direct Health Impacts of Climate Change Health impacts of thermal extremes Health impacts of extreme weather events Convective storms Floods Hurricanes Ice Storms Tornadoes Potential Indirect Health Impacts of Climate Change Vector-borne diseases Encephalitis Malaria Dengue and Yellow Fever Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rodent-borne diseases Hantavirus Diseases associated with water Respiratory disorders Smog Acidic deposition Suspended particulates Nutritional health
15.2.5. Human Settlements and Infrastructure Demographic Pressures Infrastructure Investments in Adaptation Coastal Regions Particularly Vulnerable Vulnerability to System Failure Development and Vulnerability to Extreme Events
15.2.6. Tourism and Recreation
15.2.7 Public and Private Insurance Systems Private-Sector Insurance Systems Government-Based Insurance and Disaster-Relief Systems Creating and Maintaining Adaptive Capacity Equity and Sustainability Issues in Relation to Insurance

15.3. Adaptation Potential and Vulnerability

15.3.1. Generic Issues
15.3.2. Subregional and Extra-Regional Cases Introduction Pacific Subregion Rocky Mountains-Southwest U.S. Subregion Prairies-Great Plains Subregion Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Subregion North Atlantic Subregion Southeast United States Arctic Border U.S.-Mexican Border The U.S.-Caribbean Border

15.4. Synthesis


Stewart Cohen (Canada) and Kathleen Miller (USA)

Lead Authors:
K. Duncan (Canada), E. Gregorich (Canada), P. Groffman (USA), P. Kovacs (Canada), V. Magaña (Mexico), D. McKnight (USA), E. Mills (USA), D. Schimel (USA)

Contributing Authors:
G. Chichilnisky (USA), D. Etkin (Canada), R. Fleming (Canada), K. Hall (USA), S. Meyn (Canada), J. Patz (USA), R. Pulwarty (USA), D. Scott (Canada), G. Wall (Canada)

Review Editor:
E. Wheaton (Canada)

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